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Full text of "StatUS: a monthly chartbook of social and economic trends. July 1976. Historical Statistics of the United States."

A MONTHLY CHARTBOOK OF 
SOCIAL&ECONOMIC TRENDS 



JULY 1976 

ST76-1 



PEOPLE 



COMMUNITY 



ECONOMY 



OTHER 
TRENDS 



Special 
Feature 

HISTORICAL 

STATISTICS 

OF THE 

UNITED STATES 



Compiled by the Federal Statistical System 



message 
from the 
president 



We are today beginning 
the monthly circulation in 
one easy-reference publica- 
tion of the basic facts, 
figures and trends relating 
to American life. 

This publication, STATUS, 
A Monthly Chartbook of So- 
cial and Economic Trends, 
began a year ago, when, 
at the suggestion of 
Vice President Rockefeller 
as Vice Chairman of the Do- 
mestic Council, the Office 
of Management and Budget, 
the Bureau of the Census, 
and other major Federal 
statistical agencies began 
to prepare a selection of 
computer-drawn charts as a 
briefing reference for the 
President and the Vice 
President. I was so im- 
pressed by what was being 
produced that I decided, if 
these facts were available 
to the American people and 
distributed throughout the 
Federal Government on a 
monthly basis, both the 
public and the whole Gov- 
ernment would mutually 
benefit. 



STATUS will encourage 
this broader use of statis- 
tics by systematically 
bringing together critical 
domestic information from 
all Federal agencies and 
expressing it in clear and 
easily understandable chart 
form. 

STATUS will also enable 
private citizens to know 
how the Federal Government 
invests the money from 
their taxes. With this in- 
formation, the reader can 
cut through the rhetoric 
to discover how much wel- 
fare really costs; or how 
many Americans receive food 
stamps; or whether dis- 



crimination occurs in em- 
ployment and education; or 
how many people actually 
work for the local, State 
and Federal governments. 

From the outset, the aim 
of this Administration has 
been openness and candor. 
The decision to share with 
all Americans these crit- 
ical data is another ex- 
ample of open government in 
action. STATUS is a doc- 
ument of tremendous 
positive potential. I have 
great faith that the Amer- 
ican people will make the 
most of it. 



/^ 



,W 





A MONTHLY CHARTBOOK OF 
SOCIAL&ECONOMIC TRENDS 



*{/ JULY 1976 

ST76-1 



Section I 

PEOPLE 

Population Estimates & 
Projections 4-7 

Selected Current 
Vital Statistics 8 

Births & 
Fertility 9 

Employment & 
Unemployment 10-12 

Labor Turnover 
in Manufacturing 13 

Average Workweek 14 

Personal Income 15 

Urban Family 
Budget 16-17 

Food Stamps 18-19 

School Enrollment 
Projections 20 

Private Health 
Insurance Coverage 21 

Characteristics 
of Women 22-26 



Special Feature 

HISTORICAL 
STATISTICS 
OF THE 
UNITED STATES 

Population 1610- 
1970 28 

A Nation of 
Immigrants 29 

Vital Statistics 30 

Employment 31 

Education and 
Social Welfare 32 
Elections and 
Politcs 33 

National Income 
& Product 34 

Business and 
Financial Markets 35 

Prices: Historical 
Trends 36 

Manufacturing 37 

Housing & 
Construction 38 
Foreign Trade 39 
Agriculture 40 

Communication & 
Transportation 41 

Government 42 
Map of the Month 

DISTRIBUTION 
OF OLDER 
AMERICANS 46-49 



Section II 

COMMUNITY 

Local Government 
Revenue 44 

Public 

Labor-Management 
Relations 45 

General Housing 
Characteristics 50-53 

Crime Index 
Trends 54-55 

Criminal Justice 
Expenditures 56-57 

Voter Registration & 
Participation 58-61 

Transportation 
Trends 62 

Section III 

ECONOMY 

Gross National 
Product 64-65 

Corporate 
Profits 66 

Business Conditions 
Indicators 67 

Industrial 
Production 68-69 

Manufacturing- 
Trade Sales & 
Inventories 70 

Advance Retail 
Sales-May 71 

Housing Starts 
& Permits 72 

New Home Sales 73 

Value of 

New Construction 74 

Consumer Price 
Index 75-77 



Wholesale Price 
Index 78 

Agricultural 
Prices 79 

Productivity 

and Labor Costs 80 

Exports & 
Imports 81 

Federal Government 
Receipts & 
Expenditures 83 

Money Supply Measures 
Consumer Installment 
Credit 84 

Section IV 

OTHER 
TRENDS 

Sources and 
Uses of Energy 86 

Energy Use in 
Manufacturing 87-89 

Pollution Abatement 
Expenditures 90 

Imports of Metals 
and Minerals 91 

SOURCES 92 93 

NOTES AND 
DEFINITIONS 94 96 



Compiled by the Federal Statistical System 



U.S. Department 
of Commerce 

Elliot C. Richardson, Secretary 

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 
Vincent P. Barabba, Director 
Robert L. Hagan, Deputy Director 
Shirley Kallek, Associate Director 

for Economic Fields 
Daniel B. Levine, Associate Director 

for Demographic Fields 



Executive Office of the President, 
Office of Management and Budget 

James T. Lynn, Director 
Paul H. O'Neill, Deputy Director 
Fernando Oaxaca, Associate Director 
for Management and Operations 
Joseph W. Duncan, Chief Statistician 
C. Louis Kincannon, Project Coordinator 



ECONOMIC SURVEYS DIVISION 
Roger H. Bugenhagen, Chief 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This publication is prepared in the 
Economic Surveys Division, Bureau 
of the Census under the general 
direction of Roger Bugenhagen, 
assisted by Peter Ohs, Assistant 
Division Chief. Robert Torene, 
assisted by Laurie Griffin and 
James C. Richardson, is direct- 
ly responsible for the technical 
review and supervision of the re- 
port. Publication design services 
were provided by Nicholas Preftakes 
Publications Services Division. 
Graphics systems were developed 
under the direction of Claggett 
Jones, Chief of the Systems Soft- 
ware Division, with the assis- 
tance of Lawrence Cornish. 

This, publication is prepared under 
the general guidance of an editorial 
committee established by the Office 
of Management and Budget. The 
committee consists of the following 



persons: Joseph W. Duncan, Chair- 
man and C. Louis Kincannon, 
Executive Secretary, of the Office 
of Management and Budget; 
Richard Small, Department of 
Agriculture; Morris R. Goldman, 
Bureau of Economic Analysis and 
Shirley Kallek, Bureau of the 
Census, Department of Commerce; 
Albert H. Linden, Jr., Federal 
Energy Administration; John L. 
Stone, Federal Reserve Board; 
Marie D. Eldridge, National Center 
for Education Statistics; Jacob J. 
Feldman, National Center for 
Health Statistics; Thomas Staples, 
Social Security Administration, and 
Gooloo Wunderlich, Office of the 
Assistant Secretary for Health, 
Department of Health, Education, 
and Welfare; Robert E. Johnson, Jr. 
Department of the Interior; Harry 
Bratt, Department of Justice; 



Janet Norwood, Department of 
Labor; and William Smith, Internal 
Revenue Service, Department of 
Treasury. 

The planning and development of 
content for this publication were 
carried out with the assistance of a 
Technical Committee established 
by the Office of Management and 
Budget. The committee members 
are shown on the inside of the back 
cover. 

The cooperation of various govern- 
ment and private agencies which 
provide data is gratefully acknowl- 
edged. Agencies furnishing data are 
indicated on the appropriate chart 
and also listed in the Sources of 
Data. 



The Secretary of Commerce has 
determined that the publication 
of this periodical is necessary in 
the transaction of the public 
business of this Department. Use of 
funds for printing this publication 
has been approved by the Director, 
Office of Management and Budget, 
through September 1976. 



SUGGESTED CITATION 

Library of Congress Card 

No. 76-600637 

U.S. Bureau of the Census 

STATUS: a monthly chart book 
of social and economic trends. July 
1976 Washington, D.C. 1976 

For sale by the Subscriber 
Services Section, Bureau of the 
Census, Washington, D.C. 20233. 
Price: $3.60 per copy. 



INTRODUCTION 

STATUS, a Monthly Chart- 
book of Social and Economic 
Trends, is an attempt to breathe 
life into the many numbers 
which spill daily from the 
diverse agencies of the Federal 
Statistical System. 

STATUS is a graphic pre- 
sentation of current statis- 
tical information on major 
social and economic conditions 
within the United 
States. We will make exten- 
sive use of color in present- 
ing charts, tables, and maps 
to convey complex statistical 
information quickly and 
accurately. We will also 
experiment with 
different and innovative 
graphic presentation techniques 
with the goal of constantly 
improving reader understand- 
ing of the data. 



STATUS has been designed 
for the general public as well 
as for the people concerned 
with domestic and inter- 
national developments. It is 
aimed at decision makers and 
policymakers in all 
fields: business, govern- 
ment, and academic. The 
magazine is not 
intended for the exclusive 
use of the professional 
statistician or economist. 

STATUS will also 
provide listings of basic 
sources for the material 
presented. This will enable 
those readers with a need for 
more detailed data to follow 
up directly with the agencies 
supplying us with the data. 

The statistics which 
originate in the Federal 
agencies are not covered 
by copyright and may be 
reprinted from the pages 



of STATUS. Occasionally 
statistical material from 
nongovernmental sources 
will be used which may 
require formal reprint per- 
mission from the copyright 
owners. 

In each edition of STATUS, 
major subdivisions will relate 
to people, community, 
economy, and other fields 
such as science or environ- 
ment. Each issue will 
highlight a subject of major 
public interest and will be 
covered in greater depth. 

SUGGESTIONS AND 
COMMENTS 

We hope that you will offer 
suggestions for improving 
the presentation of statis- 
tical data in STATUS. 
We welcome your 
comments and urge you 
to make your information 



needs known for our consid- 
eration in planning future 
editions. 

Suggestions and comments 
should be sent to the 
Director, Bureau of the 
Census, Washington, D.C. 
20233, or Chief Statistician, 
Office of Management and Bud- 
get, Washington, D.C. 20503 

FOR ADDITIONAL 

INFORMATION 

ON DATA PRESENTED 

Please consult pages 92 to 93 
for the source publications 
from which the statistical data 
for this issue were drawn. 
Many of these publications 
are available in public and 
private libraries. The addresses 
of the originating Federal 
agencies are also presented for 
reader convenience. Write to 
the Bureau of the Census only 
if it is cited as a data source. 



Section I 



people 



Population Estimates 


Labor Turnover in 


School Enrollment 




& Projections 


Manufacturing 


Projections 




Total Population (As of 


Labor Turnover in 


Enrollment in Grades K-12 




July 1) 4 


Manufacturing 13 


of Regular Day School 20 




Annual Population Increase 
(Year Beginning July 1) 4 


Separations 13 
Accessions 13 


Degree-Credit Enrollment 
in Institutions of Higher 
Education 20 




Estimates and Projections 








of the U.S. Population by 


Average Workweek 






Age Group: 1965 to 1985 5 




Private Health 




Age and Sex Composition 
of the Population- 1965 


Average Workweek in the 
Nonagricultural Sector 14 


Insurance: 1974 




and 1975 Estimates, 1985 


Average Workweek in 


Private Health Insurance 




Projection 


Manufacturing 14 


by Family Income and Age: 
1974 21 




1965 Estimates 6 


Factory Overtime 14 






1975 Estimates 7 
1985 Projections 1 


Personal Income 
Personal Income 15 
Wage and Salary 


Characteristics of 
Women 




Selected Current Vital 


Disbursements 15 


Males per 100 Females 22 




Statistics 




Life Expectancy at Birth 






Urban Family Budget 


Birth 22 




Births Per 1,000 Population 




Marital Status 23 




tion 8 


Urban Family Budget: 
1975 16 


General Fertility 23 




Deaths Per 1,000 Popula- 


Labor Force Participation 




tion 8 


Components of Family 


of Married Women 24 




Infant Deaths Per 1,000 
Live Births 8 


Consumption 16 
Percent Change in Costs 


Labor Force Participation 
Rates for Women by 




Births & Fertility 
Annual Births 9 


1974 to 1975 16 


Educational Attainment 24 




Total Family Budget: 
1975 17 


Median Annual Earnings 






Differentials For Men 




Fertility Rates 9 


Total Intermediate Family 


and Women 25 






Budget: 1975 17 


Median Annual Earnings 




Employment & 




by Profession 25 




Unemployment 


Food Stamps 


College Attainment of 
Women 25 to 29 Years 




Civilian Labor Force and 


Participation in the 


Old 26 




Employment 10 


Food Stamp Program 18 


Percent of All Women and 




Unemployment Rate 10 


USDA Funding for Food 


Women of Spanish Origin 




Unemployment Rates by 


Assistance Program 18 


With 4 or More Years 




Age, Sex, and Race 1 1 


USDA Costs For the Food 


of College 26 




Unemployment Rates by 


Stamp Program 18 






Occupation 12 


Value of Food Stamps 






Unemployment Rates by 


Issued 19 






Industry 12 


Average Bonus Value 19 







POPULATION ESTIMATES & PROJECTIONS 



Demographers Project 
1985 Population Range 
Of 228-241 Million 

What will be the Nation's 
population in 1985? 

Bureau of the Census 
demographers have prepared 
three sets of population 
projections for the U.S. 
reflecting different assump- 
tions about future fertility 
trends. Series I assumes 



that the average number of 
lifetime births per woman 
will move toward 2.7. The 
corresponding assumptions 
for Series II and Series 
III are 2.1 and 1.7, 
respectively. 

Based on population pro- 
jections prepared in 1974, 
the population for 1985 is 
projected to fall between 
228 million (Series III) 
and 241 million (Series I) 



1974-75 U.S. Population 
Growth Rate 1.7 Million 

From 1965 to 1975, fluctua- 
tions in the annual popula- 
tion growth were due primar- 
ily to changes in the annual 
number of births. However, 
in 1974-75 the increase in 
annual growth to 1.7 million 
persons was partly a result 
of the entry of Vietnamese 
refugees. This caused the 



July 1, 1975 population 
estimate to approximate the 
Series I projections. Under 
the Series II projection, 
annual population growth 
would again reach 2 million 
by 1980. An increase in 
annual births is projected 
not because of an increased 
birth rate, but because of 
the continuing increase in 
the population in the prime 
child bearing ages 



250 



240 



230 



220 



210 



200 



190 



MILLIONS OF PERSONS 





TOTAL POPULATION 
(As of July 1) 






SERIES 1 










SERIES 

II >^*^ 










'*\ 0*-**' SERIES III 
































; 


1 1 i i 


i i i i 


■ ■■■ 


1 1 1 1 



POPULATION 




ESTIMATES 


Total Population 


& PROJECTIONS 


as of July 1 




(In Millions) 


1965 


194.3 


1970 


204.9 


1975 


213.6 


1980 




Series I 


225.7 


Series II 


222.8 


Series III 


220.4 


1985 




Series I 


241.3 


Series II 


234.0 


Series III 


228.4 



1965 



1970 



1975 



1980 



1985 



MILLIONS OF PERSONS 




1965 1970 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



1975 



1980 



1985 



POPULATION Annual Population 
ESTIMATES Increase July 1 to 

& PROJECTIONS June 30 





(In Millions) 


1965 1966 


2.3 


1970 1971 


2.2 


1975 1976 




Series I 


2.0 


Series II 


1.6 


Series III 


1.3 


1980 1981 




Series I 


2.9 


Series II 


2.2 


Series III 


1.6 


1984 1985 




Series 1 


3.3 


Series II 


2.3 


Series III 


1.6 



POPULATION ESTIMATES & PROJECTIONS 



Age Group Movement 
Shaped by "Baby Boom" 
And Fertility Levels 

Recent and future trends in 
population by age group are 
determined primarily by 
previous trends in annual 
births. In this regard, 
the post-Second World War 
"baby boom" and subsequent 
decline in fertility are 



responsible for the trends 
seen in the childhood and 
young adult age groups. The 
numbers of persons in the 
25 to 34 and 35 to 44 age 
groups are each projected 
to increase by about 9 
million between 1975 and 
1985. This is due largely 
to the aging of the persons 
born during the "baby boom. 



Some declines will occur in 
the school age population 
as the baby boom members 
grow out of these age 
groups. 



MILLIONS 



MILLIONS 



MILLIONS 



! Jj ESTIMATES 
I PROJECTIONS 



Series I 



ies II 



H 



■■ Series II! 





40 -r 
35- 
30- 
25- 
20- 
15- 
10 - 
5- 
0-- 



14 TO 17 YEARS 



ESTIMATES AND 
PROJECTIONS OF THE 
U.S. POPULATION 
BY AGE GROUP: 
1965 TO 1985 



40 -r 
35- 
30- 
25 - 
20- 
15- 
10 - 
5 - 
0-- 



18 TO 24 YEARS 



40-r 
35- 
30 - 
25 - 
20- 
15 - 
10- 
5 - 
0-- 



25 TO 34 YEARS 



40 
35 
30 
25 
20 
15 
10- 

5- 





35 TO 44 YEARS 



40 
35 -| 
30 
25 -1 
20 
15 -I 
10 

5 





45 TO 54 YEARS 



40 
35 -} 
30 
25 -| 
20 
15 -} 
10 

5 -4 





55 TO 64 YEARS 



40 

35-| 

30 

25 

20 

15-} 

10 

5 





65 YEARS AND OVER 



1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 



1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 



1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



POPULATION ESTIMATES & PROJECTIONS 



Population Pyramids 
Reveal Major Changes in 
Age Structure 

Population pyramids for 
different years show major 
changes in the age composi- 
tion of the population. 
Through the middle adult 
ages, the structure is 



determined largely by pre- 
vious trends in fertility. 
Beyond middle age, mortality 
patterns become an increas- 
ingly important determinant. 
There are more males than 
females in the pre-adult 
age groups because there 
are about 5 percent more 
male births than female 



births. However, mortality 
is higher among males than 
females throughout life, 
and in the older adult age 
groups there are more 
females than males. 



1965 ESTIMATES 



AGE AND SEX COMPOSITION OF THE POPULATION- 
1965 AND 1975 ESTIMATES, 1985 PROJECTION 



POPULATION ESTIMATES & PROJECTIONS 

MALE& FEMALE-BY 

AGE, TOTAL 

75+ 

70-74 

65-69 

60-64 

55-59 

50-54 
45-49 
40-44 
35-39 
30-34 

25-29 

2024 

15-19 

10-14 

59 

04 

'Series II 



1965-1975 


1975 1985 


Percent Change 


30.0 


20.4 


8.2 


25.2 


23.6 


13.1 


22.1 


13.4 


10.9 


4.3 


14.6 


-9.2 


3.6 


-2.5 


-9.9 


25.8 


-3.3 


48.3 


25.8 


37.7 


49.4 


21.4 


40.0 


6.5 


23.5 


-14.4 


7.2 


18.7 


-14.9 


1.0* 


-19.8 


24.5* 











MALE 
. 
0.8 
1 . 5 


4 

1 


85+ 
80-84 
75-79 
70-74 
65-69 
60-64 
55-59 
50-54 
45-49 
40-44 
35-39 
30-34 
25-29 
20-24 
15-19 
10-14 
5-9 
0-4 
AGE 


FEMALE 
. 7 

v 

2 .0 






2 . 


5 






3 . 
3 . 6 


3. 






3 


6 






4.0 


4 . f 
5. 1 
5. 6 




t 


\ . 9 
5. 4 










5 . 8 




6.0 






1 6 . 4 




5.9 






6.1 




5. 5 






5. 6 
5 . 7 


5. 


6 






6 


9 






6 . 




8. 


6 




8 


. 4 


9. 7 






9 . 4 

,10.0 
9 . 7 


10.4 






10.1 












I 


1 




I 




i 










! 




1 i 


i 



15 12 9 6 3 

MILLIONS 



3 6 9 12 15 

MILLIONS 



SOURCE BUREAU Of THE CENSUS 



POPULATION ESTIMATES & PROJECTIONS 



Population in 1985 
Reflects Overall Aging 

The relatively small numbers 
of people born during the 
Depression of the 1930's 
will be in the 45 to 54 age 
group by 1985. 

By that year, too, the 
members of the "baby boom' 



born in the late 1940's and 
1950's will have grown into 
the young adult classifica- 
tions. 

The population under age 
10 dropped sharply between 
1965 and 1975, reflecting 
the sharp drop in annual 
births. However, the 
structure of the 1985 



population pyramid under 
age 10 will depend on future 
fertility trends. 

The accompanying 1985 
population pyramid shows 
the projected range of the 
under-10 population using 
the Census Bureau's projec- 
tion series. 



1975 FSTIMATES 



1985 PROJECTIONS 



MALE 



1 . 6 



2 . 4 



3.6 



4 .3 



5.0 



5.8 



5.7 



5. 5 



9 . 7 



10. 7 



10.4 



1 1 1 — 

15 12 9 6 

MILLIONS 



85+ 



80-84 



75-79 



70-74 



65-69 



60-64 



55-59 



50-54 



45-49 



40-44 



35-39 



30-34 



25-29 



20-2.4 



15-19 



10-14 



5-9 



0-4 



AGE 



FEMALE 



1 



1 .3 
1 . 7 
2 . 4 




3 .3 



4 . 5 



4 . 9 



5. 5 



6 . 2 



6 . 1 



5.7 



6.0 



7 . 1 



8 . 5 



9 . 6 



10.4 



10.0 



8. 5 



MALE 



0.7 



1 .0 



1 . 9 



3.0 



4.0 



4 . 9 



5. 3 



5.3 



5.6 



6 .9 



8 .5 



9 .6 



10.2 



10.3 



9 . 1 




~~ I i I I I 

3 6 9 12 15 

MILLIONS 



~i 1 1 1 r 

15 12 9 6 3 
MILLIONS 



85+ 



80-84 



75-79 



70-74 



65-69 



60-64 



55-5.9 



50-54 



45-49 



40-44 



35-39 



30-34 



25-2.9 



20-24 



15-1.9 



10-14 



FEMALE 



1 .6 



1 .9 



3,1 



4. 2 



5. 1 



5 . 6 



5. 7 



5 . 6 



5 .9 



7 . 2 



.8 
9. 7 



10.3 



10.2 



8 . 9 




1 .7 



AGE 



~i 1 1 r — 

3 6 9 12 15 

MILLIONS 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



SELECTED CURRENT VITAL STATISTICS 



Death Rates Go Up 
During March Due to 
Flu Epidemic 

Birth Rate: 

During March of this year, 

the birth rate was 14.5 per 

1,000 population; about 1 

percent above the rate for 

March 1975. 

Death Rate: 

The crude death rate for 

March 1976 (10.2 deaths per 

BIRTHS PER 1,000 POPULATON 



1,000 population) was 7.4 
percent higher than for 
March 1975, and was the 
highest recorded for this 
month since the severe 
influenza epidemic of 1963 
when the crude death rate 
for March was 11.1. The 
cumulative death rate for 
January-March 1976 (9.9 per 
1 ,000 population) was the 
same as the rate for the 
corresponding period for 



1975. This suggests that 
the effect of the influenza 
epidemic of January- 
February 1975 was about the 
same as that of the 
February-March 1976 epi- 
demic on the cumulative 
rate for the first 3 months 
of this year. 
Infant Mortality: 
For deaths due to certain 
diseases of early infancy, 
the rate per 1,000 live 



births continued sharply 
downward. 






Per 


1,000 


VITAL STATISTICS 


Pop 


ulation 


Birth Rate 






MARCH 1974 




14.4 


MARCH 1975 




14.3 


MARCH 1976 




14.5 


Death Rate 






MARCH 1974 




9.5 


MARCH 1975 




9.5 


MARCH 1976 




10.2 




Per 


1,000 


Infant Mortality Rate 


Live 


Births 


MARCH 1974 




17.6 


MARCH 1975 




17.0 


MARCH 1976 




15.4 



DEATHS PER 1 ,000 
POPULATON 




INFANT DEATHS PER 1,000 
LIVE BIRTHS 




•NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED 



JAN. FEB. MAR. APR. MAY JUNE JULY AUG. SEPT. OCT. NOV. DEC. 

SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



BIRTHS& FERTILITY 



Record Low Fertility 
Rates Since 1972 

In 1975 there were slightly 
more than 3 million births, 
about the same as in 1921 , 
even though the total 
population has more than 
doubled during this 54-year 
interval. 

Although the number of 
births in 1921 and 1975 was 
almost the same, there 



were wide annual variations 
in the intervening years. 

An annual low of 2.3 
million births occurred in 
1933 in the middle of the 
Depression. 

Just 24 years later in 
the midst of the "baby boom" 
of the 1950's and 1960's, 
a record annual high of 
4.3 million births was 
recorded in 1957. 



Paralleling the fluctua- 
tions in annual numbers of 
births, the total fertility 
rate (see Notes and Defini- 
tions) reached a high of 
3.7 in 1957. Each year 
since 1972 has seen a 
record low fertility rate 
set for the United States. 
In the 1930's, fertility 
dipped below the population 
replacement fertility level 
(see Notes and Definitions). 



During the years after 
World War II r fertility far 

exceeded replacement needs. 
Since 1972, rates have 
again fallen short of those 
needed for replacement. 

Even at the current sub- 
replacement rates, however, 
it would be many years be- 
fore the population stopped 
growing because of the 
numbers of women of child- 
bearing age. 





MILLIONS OF 


B I RTHS 






















ANNUAL 


BIRTHS 








































•^ y 


s 




























V. 
































































BIRTHS& FERTILITY 1955 1965 


1975 
















ANNUAL BIRTHS A 


Millions of Births 




.10 3.76 3.15 
















Children per Women 
FERTILITY RATES 
Total Fertility Rate 3.52 2.92 1.80 




III! 


i ■ i ■ 


i i i i 




■ •ii 


i ■ i ■ 


Replacement Fertility Rate 2.14 2.13 
■ i ■ ■ I t ■ i i 1 ■ ■ ■ ■ 1 ■ i i i 


2.11 

■ ■ii 



1920 



1925 



1930 



1935 



1940 



1945 



1950 



1955 



1960 



1965 



1970 



1975 



CHILDREN PER WOMAN 




1920 1925 1930 1935 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 



SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



10 EMPLOYMENTS UNEMPLOYMENT 



Employment Continues 
Rise in May; 
Unemployment Drops 

Unemployment resumed its 
downward course in May while 
employment continued upward. 

Total employment rose by 
300,000 to another new high 
of 87.7 million. Adult 
women accounted for about 
half the May gain. Since 
the March 1975 low, employ- 



ment has advanced by 3.6 
million. 

Following 2 months of 
little change, unemployment 
declined by 180,000 persons 
to 6.9 million. Total job- 
lessness has now fallen 1 .4 
million from the May 1975 
recession high. 

The civilian labor force 
held about steady in May at 
94.6 million after a 720,000 
increase in April. 



Unemployment Rate Drops 
To 7.3%, Lowest Since 
December 1974 

The overall unemployment 
rate dropped to 7.3 percent 
in May compared with 7.5 
percent in the previous 2 
months and the recession 
peak of 8.9 percent recorded 
a year earlier. The May 
rate was the lowest in 
17 months. 



The rate for full-time 
workers declined to 6.8 
percent. Unemployment 
among household heads was 
unchanged at 4.8 percent. 



MILLIONS Of PERSONS 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (PERCENT) 




60 



50 



40 



30 



20 



I -j -L 



ADULT FEMALE 
EMPLOYMENT 



ADULT MALE 
EMPLOYMENT 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



197 1 



972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 





MAY 


APRIL 


MAY 


EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOYMENT 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Millions of Persons 




Civilian Labor Force 


92.8 


94.4 


94.6 


Civilian Employment 


84.5 


87.4 


87.7 


Adult Males 


47.3 


48.5 


48.6 


Adult Females 


30.1 


31.5 


31.7 


Teenagers (16 19) 


7.1 


7.4 


7.4 


UNEMPLOYMENT RATES 




Percent 




All Workers, Total 


8.9 


7.5 


7.3 


Full-Time Workers 


8.5 


7.0 


6.8 


Household Heads 


6.1 


4.8 


4.8 


White, Total 


8.3 


6.7 


6.6 


Adult Males 


6.7 


4.9 


5.1 


Adult Females 


8.0 


6.7 


6.3 


Teenagers 


18.3 


16.6 


16.3 


Black and Other, Total 


14.2 


13.0 


12.2 


Adult Males 


11.6 


10.0 


9.2 


Adult Females 


12.1 


10.9 


10.4 


Teenagers 


37.3 


39.2 


38.5 



EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOYMENT 



11 



Unemployment Improves 
For Adult Women and 
Black Men 

May unemployment rate im- 
provements took place almost 
entirely among adult women. 

The rate for white adult 
females dropped from 6.7 to 
6.3 percent while that for 
adult females of black and 
other races declined from 
10.8 to 10.4 percent. Both 



rates are the lowest since 
November 1974. 

The unemployment rate 
for adult men edged upward 
from 5.4 to 5.6 percent. 
An increase among white 
adult males, from 4.9 to 
5.1 percent, more than off- 
set a significant improve- 
ment among adult males, 
black and other races. 

Teenage unemployment was 
virtually unchanged in May. 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (PERCENT) 




TEENAGERS, BLACK AND 
OTHER RACES 



TEENAGERS, WHITE 



ADULT MALES, BLACK AND 
OTHER RACES 

ADULT FEMALES, BLACK AND 
OTHER RACES 



ADULT FEMALES, WHITE 
ADULT MALES, WHITE 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



12 EMPLOYMENT & UNEMPLOYMENT 



White-Collar Unemployment 
Down; Blue-Collar 
Unchanged at 9% 

In May the unemployment rate 
for workers in white-collar 
occupations edged down to 
4.6 percent, a rate which 
has been virtually unchanged 
since June 1975. A decline 
to 6.4 percent in the unem- 
ployment rate for clerical 
workers was responsible for 



the improvement in the 
white-collar rate. 

Joblessness among blue- 
collar workers was unchanged 
at 9 percent. This compares 
with a recession peak of 
12.8 percent in May 1975. 
The unchanged rate was the 
result of a decline in the 
unemployment rate for craft 
and kindred workers which 
was offset by an increase in 
the rate for nonfarm laborers. 



Unemployment Rates in 
Manufacturing and 
Construction Improve 

Among the major industry 
groups there were significant 
improvements in unemploy- 
ment rates in manufacturing 
and construction. 

Manufacturing unemploy- 
ment dropped to a 7.3-per- 
cent rate from 7.6 percent 
the previous month. Both 



durable and nondurable goods 
industries shared in the 
decline. 

Unemployment in the con- 
struction industry dropped 
to 14.1 percent, lowest 
since November 1974. 

In transportation and 
public utilities, the unem- 
ployment rate climbed from 
4.1 to 5.3 percent. This 
is the sharpest 1 -month 
rise since January 1975. 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (PERCENT) 



UNEMPLOYMENT RATE (PERCENT) 




Q llllUimilllllllllllllllll.lH.Hlll.MUMIIllMIIMII.I.lw.UHHllI 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 




1971 



1972 1973 1974 1975 



976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



LABOR TURNOVER IN MANUFACTURING 



13 



Manufacturing Job Roll 
Additions Dip in April; 
First Since Oct. 1975 

Total additions to manufac- 
turing employment rolls 
declined to a rate of 4.1 
per 100 employees in April. 
These additions (accessions) 
cover permanent and tempor- 
ary workers including both 
new and rehired employees. 
Since December 1974, when 



the total accession rate 
hit a low of 3.1 per 100 
workers, accessions have 
increased 32 percent. 

The total separation 
rate— permanent or temporary 
terminations of employment- 
declined to 3.7 per 100 
workers in April. This was 
the first decline since 
January. 



Layoffs, Quits Up in 
April; New Hires Down 

Layoffs and quits continued 
to rise in April. 

The layoff rate rose to 
1 .3 percent, the second in- 
crease since September 1975. 
Since last April, layoffs 
have dropped 50 percent. 

The quit rate, which 
partially reflects worker 
assessment of job 



opportunities, rose to 1.8 
percent. This was the third 
increase and the highest 
level recorded since 
November 1974. 

New hires declined to 
2.7 percent, a decrease of 
7 percent from the March 
rate of 2.9 percent, the 
highest level since Septem- 
ber 1974. Over the year, 
new hires have increased 
59 percent. 





RATE PER 


00 EMPLOYEES 












LABOR TURNOVER 
















j 
















/ 


\- 


— TOTAL 










/ 


\ 











\ 


















\ 














A 1 ''' \ A 


(a 












' -TOT 


Al 


O ~t 










ACC 


ESSIONS 


























































n 


■ 1 1 1 1 ■ 1 1 1 ■ i 


■ i ■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i i 


■ ' » • • • 


' ' ' 






RATE. PER 100 EMPLOYEES 





SEPARA 


TIONS 








































































































_^-- LAYOFFS 




































































QUITS 




■ • • • 


i i i i i i • i i i i 





i i i i i i i i i i i 


i i i i > i ■ ■ i i ■ 


i i i ■ i i i i i i i 



1971 



1972 



1973 



974 



1975 



1976 





1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



LABOR TURNOVER 
IN MANUFACTURING 


APRIL 
1975 


MARCH 
1976 


APRIL 
1976 






Percent 




ACCESSION RATE, TOTAL 
New Hires 

SEPARATION RATE, TOTAL 

Quits 

Layoffs 


3.9 
1.7 

4.5 
1.2 
2.6 


4.4 
2.9 

3.9 
1.7 
1.2 


4.1 
2.7 

3.7 
1.8 
1.3 





RATE PER 100 EMPLOYEES 










ACCESSI 


ONS 
























D 




























o - 


















































\"^ 


.-NEW HIRE 




■J ~ 
















y^~ 












z - 




























1 - 














n 






' ■ 


i ■ ■ ■ i i i t i i i 


■ i ■ ■ i i i i ■ i < 





1971 1972 



1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



14 AVERAGE WORKWEEK 



Average Workweek in 
Manufacturing Recovers 
From April Decline 

The average workweek 
rebounded from depressed 
April levels, which had 
been affected by religious 
observances during the 
survey period. Hours for 
all production and non- 
supervisory workers on 
private nonagricultural 



payrolls increased by 0.3 
hour in May to 36.3 hours. 

The manufacturing work- 
week rose 0.9 hour, with 
nearly all of the increase 
in factory overtime. In- 
creases were recorded in 
most durable and nondur- 
able goods manufacturing 
industries. 

The average workweek 
in finance, insurance, and 
real estate climbed 0.3 



hour in May to 36.8 hours, 
highest since February 1975. 
All other industry groups 
remained at or near prior 
month levels. 



44 



42 



40 



38 



36 



34 



32 



AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS 



AVERAC 
NONAGF 


;e workwe 
?icultura 


EK IN THE P 
L SECTOR 


RIVATE 




















1 


l/IANUFACTl 


JRING 








/A^^ 


/^ 






\l 


W i 






f 




v 














_>/ 


/teA/OL 




F|[\ 
A 


ANCE, INSL 
ND REAL E 


RANCE, 
5TATE 


/*~V- 


f v ^ V 


I V , 


V«y 


%u> 


/J 








i\ 


TOTAL PR 
ONAGRICU 


/ 

IVATE 

LTURAL 


























i i i i • > i • i i ■ 













197 1 



1972 



1973 



1 974 



1975 



1976 





APRIL 


MARCH APRIL 


AVERAGE WORKWEEK 


1975 


1976 1976 






Average Weekly Hours 


Private Nonagricultural 


35.9 


36.0 36.3 


Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate 


36.4 


36.5 36.8 


Manufacturing 


39.0 


39.4 40.3 


Durable Goods Industries 


39.5 


39.7 41.0 


Nondurable Goods Industries 


38.3 


38.7 39.5 


Factory Overtime 


2.4 


2.5 3.3 



44 



AVERAGE WEEKLY HOURS 



42 



40 



38 



36 



1 1 1 

AVERAGE WORKWEEK IN MANUFACTURING 
























DURABLE GOODS 
INDUSTRIES 

\ 


. 








^ 










\V J 


1/ 


















NONDl 


JRABLEGOI 
DUSTRIES- 


DDS 








lf\ 




■ > i ■ i ■ < • ■ • i 



197 1 



1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



AVERAGE OVERTIME HOURS 



FACTORS 


'OVERTIME 


' 






























Al 








V 




1 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



PERSONAL INCOME 



15 



Personal Income Up 
For Tenth Straight 
Month During May 

Total personal income in- 
creased $1 1 .1 billion in 
May. This was the tenth 
consecutive gain and the 
fifth in a row exceeding 
$10 billion. Personal 
income reached a seasonally 
adjusted annual rate of 
$1,357.2 billion in May, 



an increase of 1 1.5 percent 
from May 1975. 

Private wages and salar- 
ies increased $6.3 billion 
in May, compared to the 
$6.5 billion rise reported 
in April. Payrolls in com- 
modity-producing industries 
and distributive industries 
rose less in May. Payrolls 
in service industries ad- 
vanced $2.3 billion, sub- 
stantially more than the 



$1 .7 billion increase 
reported in April. 

Government wages and 
salaries rose $1 .1 billion, 
the largest gain since last 
November. 

Transfer payments, which 
include Social Security, 
unemployment, and veterans 
benefits, declined $0.6 
billion in May following 
a $1 .6 billion drop in 



April. April payments 
were revised downward as 
new data indicated a sub- 
stantial number of low- 
income families were not 
taking advantage of the 
earned-income credit. 



1 ,400 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



1 ,200 



1 ,000 



800 



600 



400 



200 






MAY 


APRIL 


MAY 


PERSONAL INCOME 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




TOTAL 


1,217.2 


1 ,346.2 


1,357.2 


Wage and Salary Disbursements 


787.4 


864.1 


871.5 


Private Wages and Salaries 


614.8 


679.9 


686.2 


Commodity-Producing Industries 


267.0 


298.0 


300.3 


Distributive Industries 


191.7 


210.2 


211.9 


Service Industries 


156.1 


171.7 


174.1 


Government Wages and Salaries 


172.6 


184.2 


185.3 


Transfer Payments 


169.3 


189.2 


188.6 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




' ■ ' ■ ■ ■ ■ ' ' ■ ■ 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



16 URBAN FAMILY BUDGET 



Typical Urban Family 
Living Costs Rise 
8% from '74 to '75 

In Autumn 1975, a typical 
urban family of four re- 
quired $1 5,318 a year to 
maintain a moderate standard 
of living. The same family 
could live at a lower budget 
level for $9,588, or at a 
higher level allowing some 
luxuries for $22,294 a year. 



From Autumn 1974 to 
Autumn 1957, total consump- 
tion costs rose about 7 per- 
cent for the lower budget 
and 8 percent for the inter- 
mediate and higher budgets. 

The largest increases 
occurred in homeowner costs 
(included as a housing cost 
only in the intermediate 
and higher budgets), trans- 
portation, and medical care. 



Since various consumption 
items comprised different 
proportions of each budget 
level, cost changes had 
varying effects, 

For example, the change 
in food costs was largest 
for the higher budget. 
However, food comprises a 
larger proportion of total 
consumption costs at the 



lower budget level, and 
thus food price increases 
had a larger effect on the 
total increase for the lower 
level budget. 





THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS 




















URBAN FAMILY BUDGET: 1975 




28 - 


1 TOTAL BUDGET 


- 




^ 


J TOTAL FA 


V1ILY CONSUMPTION 
D DEDUCTIONS 




26 - 


TAXES AN 




■ other items 




24 - 


S22.3 


- 


22 - 








" 


20 - 








- 


18 - 






$16.1 


- 


16 - 


" 


£15.: 


1 








1 4 - 












- 


1 2 - 






S11 


7 








- 


10 - 


S9.6 














_ 
























8 J 


. 




S7 8 














_ 


6 - 








































S5C 




4 - 












SI 4 






S2.J 


1 








S 1.2 


2 - 












O - 








S.4 








S 7 









COMPONENTS OF FAMILY CONSUMPTION: 1975 
PERCENT CHANGE IN COSTS 1974 TO 1975 



3 



FOOD 
HOUSING 

TRANSPORTATION 
MEDICAL CARE 
CLOTHING AND OTHER 





PERCENT 














90 - 




38% 




33% 




30% 


- 


80 - 
70 - 






























60 - 








30% 




34% 


- 


50 - 




24% 










- 


40 - 














- 












30 J 




9% 




11% 




10% 

5% 

■ 






11% 


?0 - 


7% 


10 - 


18% 


19% 



















LOWER 
BUDGET 



INTERMEDIATE 
BUDGET 



HIGHER 
BUDGET 





PERCENT CHANGE 
































10.8 


10.8 


10.7 


10 - 


9.2 




3.8 




9 2 9.2 


~ 


3.8 


9-2 g.ol 


3.9 " 


5 - 




6.8 


5 6 




7.9 

' 












- 




























Ul 



LOWER 
BUDGET 



INTERMEDIATE 
BUDGET 



HIGHER 
BUDGET 



LOWER 
BUDGET 



INTERMEDIATE 
BUDGET 



H I GHER 
BUDGET 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



URBAN FAMILY BUDGET 

City Family Budgets 
Range from Anchorage 
High to Austin Low 

Differences in family bud- 
get levels in various cities 
reflect not only price 
level differences, but also 
regional differences in 
climate, types of transpor- 
tation facilities, and 
taxes. 

For the lower budget. 



17 



costs were 8 percent higher 
in metropolitan than in 
nonmetropolitan urban areas. 
The metropolitan-nonmetro- 
politan difference was 13 
percent for the intermediate 
budget and 18 percent for 
the higher budget. 

Intermediate budget levels 
were lowest in the South 
and highest in the far West 
and Northeast. Anchorage, 
Alaska remained the most 



expensive place to live, 
while Boston was the highest 
city in the 48 contiguous 
United States. 

A hypothetical family of 
four living in Austin, Texas, 
found living costs nearly 
40 percent lower than 
Anchorage and 26 percent 
less than Boston. 



LOWER BUDGET 

METROPOL I TAN 
NONMETROPOL I TAN 

INTERMEDIATE BUDGET 

METROPOL I TAN 
NONMETROPOL I TAN 

HIGHER BUDGET 

METROPOL I TAN 
NONMETROPOL I TAN 



+ 



TOTAL FAMILY BUDGET: 1975 



,^-J 9 - 7 

fgT.o 



15.6 



13.9 



22 . 9 



19.4 



10 



15 



20 



25 



FIVE LOWEST SMSA'S 
AUSTIN. TEXAS 

ORLANDO. FLA. 

BATON ROUGE, LA. 

DALLAS. TEXAS 

NASHVILLE.TENN. 

FIVE HIGHEST SMSA'S 

SAN FRANCISCO-OAKLAND.CA. 

NEW YORK-NORTHEASTERN N.J. 

BOSTON , MASS . 

HONOLULU , HAWA I I 

ANCHORAGE , ALASKA 



1 1 

TOTAL INTERMEDIATE FAMILY BUDGET: 1975 



13.4 



13.7 



13.8 



13.9 



14.0 



16.4 



17.5 



18.1 



18.7 



2 1.2 



10 15 

THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS 



20 



25 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



18 FOOD STAMPS 



Food Stamp Program 
Participation, Costs 
Escalate in 6 Years 

Between 1969 and 1975 par- 
ticipation in the Food Stamp 
Program rose from 2.9 mil- 
lion persons— nearly VA 
percent of the population— 
to 17.1 million persons- 
more than 8 percent. The 
largest increase occurred 
in 1971 when the program 



was amended to nationalize 
eligibility requirements 
and greatly expand benefits 
to participants. The 1971 
participation rates doubled 
those of 1970 and tripled 
the level of 1969. 

In 1975, for the first 
time in the history of the 
program, persons from house- 
holds receiving public 
assistance accounted for 
less than half of all 



persons receiving food 
stamps. 

As participation in- 
creased, USDA expenditures 
for the Food Stamp Program 
grew substantially— from 
S250 million in 1969, to 
an estimated $5.6 billion 
in 1976. 

The Food Stamp Bonus 
(that part of the coupon 
allotment paid by the 
Federal Government) accounts 



for the major portion of all 
USDA Food Stamp expenditures 
In 1959, 91 cents of every 
USDA Food Stamp dollar was 
expended for food costs. 
This figure rose to 96 cents 
per dollar in 1974, but de- 
creased to 93 cents out of 
every 1975 dollar as a re- 
sult of increases in admini- 
strative and other program 
costs. 



20 



MILLIONS OF PERSONS 



15 -- 



10 -- 



5 -- 



PARTICIPATION IN THE FOOD STAMP PROGRAM 



3 



17.1 



TOTAL PARTICIPATION 

PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PARTICIPATNS 

NONPUBLIC ASSISTANCE PARTICIPANTS 



9.4 



12.9 



12.2 





\1 



ft 




1969 



1970 



1971 



1972 1973 

FISCAL YEAR 



1974 



1975 





BILLIONS 


OF DOLLARS 


























USDA FUNDING FOR FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS 




8 - 




7.9 


- 


7 - 






CHILD NUTRITION 

FOOD STAMP R ,. 




_ 










FOOD DISTRIBUTION 






6 - 






5 J 




4.7 










- 


4 - 


3.9 












_ 




3.4 




















3 J 




2.9 






















- 


2 - 


1.6 
























- 




1.2 






























1 - 
































- 


- 




















— 















BILLIONS 


DF DOLLARS 





































USDA COSTS FOR THE FOOD STAMP PROGRAM 




4.7 




4 - 






ADMINISTRATIVE AND 

DTHFR PROGRAM POSTS • 






- 






1 FOOD STAMP ROMI IQ 








3 - 




2.8 
















2.2 










2 J 


- 


= 










. 




1 6 


















1 - 


06 




















- 


n - 


.1 























1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975* 1976 J 
FISCAL YEAR 

SOURCE DEPA 



1969 



1970 



1971 1972 1973 
FISCAL YEAR 



1974 



1975 



* PRELIMINARY 
aa ESTIMATE 



FOOD STAMPS 



19 



The total value of food 
stamps issued in 1969 was 
$600 million, which rose to 
$7.3 billion in 1975. Dur- 
ing the same period the 
Federal Government's contri- 
bution increased from approx- 
imately one-third to three- 
fifths of the total value. 
Rising food prices were 
largely responsible for the 
increase. 



The average monthly 
"bonus" received by a typi- 
cal food stamp recipient 
has moved upward from $6.63 
in 1969 to $21.40 in 1975. 
After allowing for increases 
in food prices, the "real" 
bonus (in 1967 dollars) 
rose $6.33 between 1969 
and 1975. 

The Food Stamp Program 
enables low-income house- 



holds to purchase a nutri- 
tionally adequate diet with- 
out spending more than 30 
percent of their net in- 
come (or at no cost if they 
have little or no income). 
Participants may obtain a 
specified allotment of 
Food Stamps (based on family 
size) at a specified cost 
based on family income. 



The difference is paid by 
the Federal Government in 
the form of the Food Stamp 
Bonus. 



FISCAL YEAR 
1969 



1970 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



0.6 



VALUE OF FOOD STAMPS ISSUED 



1.1 



BONUS VALUE 
TOTAL VALUE 



2.7 



3.3 



3.9 



4.7 



7.3 



3 4 5 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



FISCAL YEAR 
1969 



1970 



12 



16 



20 



24 



$6.63 



AVERAGE BONUS VALUE 

(per person per month) 



$10.55 



REAL BONUS (1967 DOLLARS) 
TOTAL BONUS (CURRENT DOLLARS) 



$13.55 



$13.48 



$14.60 



$17.61 



$21.40 



12 

DOLLARS 



16 



20 



24 



20 SCHOOL ENROLLMENT PROJECTIONS 



Decline Expected in 
School Enrollments 

Total fall enrollment in 
elementary and secondary 
schools, plus degree-credit 
enrollment in institutions 
of higher education, in- 
creased from 53 million in 
1964 to 59 million in 1974, 
but is expected to drop to 
about 55 million by the 
fall of 1984. 



At the elementary and 
secondary levels, regular 
day school enrollment rose 
from 47.7 million students 
in the fall of 1964 to 51.3 
million in the fall of 1970. 
But by 1974, this enrollment 
had dropped back to 49.8 
million. The decline is 
expected to continue, 
possibly falling to 44.8 
million students by 1984, 
which would result in a 



rate nearly 3 million 
students lower than the 
1964 enrollment rate. 

In institutions of 
higher education, including 
both 2- and 4-year schools, 
degree-credit enrollment 
grew from 5 million in 
1964 to 9 million in 1974. 
The increase is expected 
to continue until 1981, 
possibly reaching an 
enrollment of 10.2 million 



students. However, a drop 
in the rate is expected to 
begin after 1981, with 1984 
projections set at 9.8 
million students. 



MILLIONS OF STUDENTS 




SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 
PROJECTIONS 



1964 



1974 



1984 



ENROLLMENT-ALL LEVELS, TOTAL" 52.7 



GRADES K-12, TOTAL 
Public Elementary 
Public Secondary 
Nonpublic Elementary 
Nonpublic Secondary 



"These totals include daytime enrollment in all regular public and nonpublic 
elementary and secondary schools; and enrollment in publicly and 
privately controlled institutions of higher education in programs leading to 
bachelor's or higher degree. 





Millions of Students 




52.7 


58.8 


54.6 


47.7 


49.8 


44.8 


26.2 


26.4 


24.7 


15.2 


18.7 


15 8 


5.0 


3.5 


3.0 


1.3 


1.2 


1.2 



1964 



1969 



1974 



1979 



1 984 



MILLIONS OF STUDENTS 




SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 
PROJECTIONS 



1964 



1974 



1984 



Millions of Students 



DEGREE-CREDIT ENROLLMENT, 

TOTAL 
Public 4-Year 
Private 4 Year 
Public 2-Year 
Private 2 Year 



5.0 


9.0 


9.8 


2.6 


4.7 


5.0 


1.7 


2.1 


2.0 


0.6 


2.1 


2.8 


0.1 


1 


0.1 



1964 



1969 



1974 



1979 



1984 



SOURCE '.-•■' 'MAI ..:_'.-•- f OR EDUCATION STATISTICS 



PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE: 1974 



21 



Coverage Differs by 
Family Income, Age 

One of the hallmarks of 
modern American life is the 
widespread use of private 
health insurance plans to 
help pay for family health 
care needs. 

Nevertheless, data from 
the Health Interview Survey 
of 116,000 persons living 
in 40,000 households show 



that family income is a 
dominant factor in coverage 
by private health insurance 
plans. For example, in 1974 
93 percent of the 25 to 64 
age group with family in- 
come of $1 5,000 and over 
had private health insurance. 
In contrast, less than half 
of the same age group with 
family income of less than 
$5,000 participated in such 
plans. 



Although not covered by 
private health insurance, 
many in the low income 
group are eligible for 
public assistance benefits 
such as Medicaid. 

The vast majority of 
persons 65 years and older 
receive health care bene- 
fits through the Medicare 
program. 



100 



PERCENT 




1974 FAMILY INCOME 

UNDER $5,000 
55,000 TO 89,999 
510,000 TO $14,999 
$15,000 AND OVER 



UNDER 17 YEARS 17 TO 2.4 YEARS 

SOURCE NATIONAL CENTER FOR HEALTH STATISTICS 



25 TO 44 YEARS 



45 TO 64 YEARS 



22 CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN 



Population Composition 
and Life Expectancy 

Until the 1950 decennial 
census, men had always out- 
numbered women in the 
United States. In that 
year, however, a trend 
first noted in the 1920 
census resulted in a 
smaller number of males 
than females in the U.S. 



population (98.7 males per 
100 females). That trend 
is continuing. 

Since the turn of the 
century, life expectancy at 
birth has improved more for 
women than for men. Women 
born in 1900 could expect 
to live for 48.3 years 
compared with men's life 
expectancy of 46.3 years, 
a difference of only 2 



years. Females born in 
1974, however, can expect 
to live for 75.8 years 
compared with 68.1 years 
for males, a difference of 
almost 8 years. 

One of the major reasons 
for improved longevity of 
women has been the dramatic 
reduction in the maternal 
mortality rate. Deaths 
related to pregnancy and 



childbirth have dropped 
from 690 deaths per 100,00 
live births in the early 
1920's to 15 deaths per 
100,000 live births in 
1973. 



MALES PER 100 FEMALES 



106.2 



104.6 



104.1 







102.6 










100.8 




















98.7 





97.1 



94.8 



94.9 



1900 



1910 



1920 



1930 



1940 



1950 



1960 



1970 



1975 



10 



20 



30 



40 
YEARS 



50 



c 




10 

I 


20 
1 


30 

1 




40 
1 


50 

1 




60 
1 




70 

I 


8( 


















L 
51.8 


IFE 1 


:XPEC 

L 

| 61.6 
50.8 


TANCY AT 
1 MEN 

| WOMEN 

65.2 J 
65.6 : 


BIRTH 

1 
73.1 


1900 














—146.3 














~J 48 3 






1910 




























| 18 1 




■ . 










I 1 


















1920 
1930 
1940 
1950 
1960 
















KM, 
















|54.6 


































',:-: 1 


























































1 






















I 




































































a 71 
















































~| 66.6 


























1970 












— i 






.. 




| 67 1 




















^^ 








1974 






















I 68 ' 






























i 


t 


i 




i 


i 










i 





60 



70 



80 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN 



23 



Marital Status and 
General Fertility 

Recent marriage and divorce 
trends in the United States 
have resulted in a growing 
proportion of women who are 
single or divorced and not 
remarried. Between 1950 
and 1975 the proportion of 
single women increased 16 
percent. During the same 
period divorce rates more 



than doubled, while marriage 
rates declined by 10 percent. 

During the past quarter- 
century, fertility of 
American women has fluctu- 
ated widely from near-record 
highs in the late 1950's to 
all-time lows in recent 
years. Current fertility 
rates, if maintained, would 
eventually result in an 
excess of deaths over births 
in the United States. 



100 



PERCENT 




MARITAL STATUS 



NEVER MARRIED 



WIDOWED 

DIVORCED 

MARRIED HUSBAND ABSENT 



MARRIED HUSBAND PRESENT 



1950 



1960 



1970 



1975 



1.5 



NUMBER OF CHILDREN 



1.5- 




GENERAL FERTILITY 



3.5- 



1950 1960 1970 1974 
TOTAL WOMEN 



1950 1960 1970 1974 
EVER MARRIED WOMEN 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



24 CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN 



Labor Force Participation 

The dramatic increase in 
women's labor force partici- 
pation during recent years 
is a clear indication of 
the American woman's chang- 
ing social and economic 
roles. 

The percentage of working 
wives (husband present) 
nearly doubled between 1950 
and 1975. During the same 



period, labor force partici- 
pation among mothers of 
preschool children rose more 
than 200 percent. By 1975, 
more than half of all 
married women (husband 
present) with school age 
children held jobs outside 
the home— an increase of 
84.8 percent over 1950. 
Increasing numbers of 
women are translating educa- 
tional attainments into 



earnings potential in the 
labor force. Largest gains 
in the last quarter-century 
have been achieved by women 
with 1 to 3 years of college. 
Labor force participation 
for that group increased 
nearly 43 percent since 
1952. 



PARTICIPATION RATE 



100 



90 - 



80 - 



70 - 



60 



50 - 



TOTAL 

WITH CHILDREN UNDER 5 YRS 
WITH CHILDREN 6 17 YRS. 
NO CHILDREN UNDER 18 YRS. 




40 - 



30 - 



LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION 
OF MARRIED WOMEN 



1950 



1960 



1970 



1975 



LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES FOR WOMEN 
BY EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT 



HIGHSCHOOLONLY 



COLLEGE 1 TO 3 YEARS 



COLLEGE 4 OR MORE YEARS 



PERCENT OF ALL 
WOMEN 18 YEARS 
AND OLDER 

H1952 
1975 




-i 1 r - 

10 20 30 



— r~ 
40 



1 

50 
PERCENT 



60 



— r~ 
70 



80 



90 



100 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN 



25 



Median Annual Earnings 

For U.S. women, the relative 
returns for working year- 
round full-time are sub- 
stantially less than for 
men. In recent years the 
income gap has continued 
to widen. 

In 1960, median annual 
earnings for men in the 
full-time civilian labor 



force was 65 percent more 
than for women. By 1974, 
the typical male worker was 
making 75 percent more than 
the average woman. 

As a group, women in 
scientific and engineering 
fields fare better than the 
average in their earnings 
ratio with men. Their 
basic annual salary rates 
for 1974 (excluding bonuses, 



commissions, etc.) ranged 
from about 72 percent to 
about 88 percent of men's 
salaries. 

A critical factor in- 
volved in assessing differ- 
ing earning rates of women 
and men is the amount of 
lifetime work experience. 
But even after adjusting 
for differences in job 
status, education, and 



lifetime work experience, 
a 1967 study showed that 
the wages of women were 
estimated to be only about 
62 percent as high as those 
of men. 





THOUSANDS 


OF CURRENT DOLLARS 














U " 


MEDIAN ANNUAL EARNINGS 
DIFFERENTIALS FOR 
MEN AND WOMEN 








11.8 




10- 


BB WOMEN 














9.0 




8- 


























6- 






















5.4 






4- 


























3.2 


2- 

n - 























1960 



1970 



1974 



MEDIAN ANNUAL EARNINGS 
BY PROFESSION: 1974 



COMPUTER 
SPECIALISTS 



PSYCHOLOGISTS 



ENGINEERS 



ENVIRONMENTAL 
SPECIALISTS 



B 



WOMEN 
MEN 



16.3 



18.6 



17.2 



19. J 



15.6 



193 



14.4 



20A 



~\ 1 1 1 T~ 

6 8 10 12 14 

THOUSANDS OF CURRENT DOLLARS 



- 1 1 

16 18 20 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



26 CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN 



Educational Attainment 

Higher education has been 
an area of major advancement 
for women— especially black 
women— in the last 15 years 
The proportion of all 25 to 
29-year-old women with 
bachelor's (or higher) 
degrees more than doubled 
between 1960 and 1975. 
During those years, college 
attainment at the under- 



graduate level ( 1 to 3 years) 
among black women increased 
at more than twice the rate 
of white women. 

In 1974, women of Spanish 
origin were at an educational 
attainment level well below 
the national average for all 
women. Only 4 percent of all 
Spanish origin women had 
completed 4 or more years of 
college compared to 10.1 
percent of all U.S. women. 




COLLEGE ATTAINMENT OF WOMEN 25 TO 29 YEARS OLD 
COLLEGE 1 TO 3 YEARS 

1960 

1970 

1975 



COLLEGE 4 OR MORE YEARS 



1960 



1970 



1975 




PERCENT 



PERCENT 



PERCENT OF ALL WOMEN AND WOMEN OF SPANISH ORIGIN WITH 40R MORE YEARSOF COLLEGE 
5 10 15 20 



ALL WOMEN 



ALL WOMEN OF SPANISH ORIGIN 



PUERTO RICAN WOMEN 



OTHER SPANISH ORIGIN WOMEN 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



30 




Special Feature 



historical 
statistics 
of the 
united 
states 



27 




CHARTING 
200 YEARS OF 
AMERICA'S HISTORY 

The story of America can 
be told through the statis- 
tical numbers which reflect 
our development as a Nation 
America's statistical history 
began with the founding of 
the Nation, when the require- 
ment for a decennial census 
of population was built 
into the Constitution. 

This month's special 
feature is a graphic pre- 
sentation of the history of 
America as revealed by 
historical statistics. 

The charts for this 
month's special feature are 
based on a 1 ,300-page report 
of Historical Statistics of 
the United States, Colonial 
Times to 1970, published 
by the Bureau of the Census 
in celebration of the 
Nation's Bicentennial. 

The Historical Statistics 
report contains a wide range 
of data detailing the social 
and economic development 
of the United States from 
the establishment of the 
first colonies to the 
present time. 

Historical statistics 
provide a rich insight into 
the past of our Nation and 
can help us chart our way 
into a greater future. 



Population 1610-1970 28 

A Nation of Immigrants 29 

Vital Statistics 30 

Employment 31 

Education and Social 
Welfare 32 

Election & Politics 33 

National Income & 
Product 34 

Business and Financial 
Markets 35 

Prices: Historical 
Trends 36 

Manufacturing 37 

Housing & Construc- 
tion 38 

Foreign Trade 39 

Agriculture 40 

Communication & 
Transportation 41 

Federal Government 
Finances 42 



28 POPULATION: 1610-1970 



Becoming An Urban 
Nation: 1920 Proved 
The Turning Point 

Until the 1920 census, the 
majority of the American 
population lived in rural 
areas. In that year the 
urban population overtook 
the rural population for 
the first time— 54.2 million 
to 51.6 miljion. 

The first census in 1 790 

MILLIONS OF PERSONS 
1 



showed only 5 percent of 
the population (202,000) 
living in urban areas; by 
1970, the urban population 
had grown to 73.5 percent. 

The decade-by-decade pop- 
ulation growth of the U.S. 
(as shown by the decennial 
censuses) ranged from 26.6 
percent to 36.4 percent be- 
tween 1790 and 1870. That 
the population growth rate 
between censuses has de- 



clined since then can be 
seen from the 1 960 to 1 970 
13.3 percentage increase. 
The lowest 10-year rate of 
increase was during the de- 
pression of the 1930's. 
Between 1930 and 1940, the 
U.S. population grew by 
only 7.2 percent. 

In 1790, 36 percent of 
all households consisted of 
7 or more persons compared 
with 5 percent in 1970. 



One-person households, only 
4 percent of the total in 
1790, had grown to 17 per- 
cent by 1970. 

U.S. land area totaled 
865,000 square miles in 
1790 and the number of per- 
sons per square mile was 
4.5. In 1970, the land area 
exceeded 3.5 million square 
miles and the population 
density was 57.5 persons per 
square mile. 




1780 



1800 



1820 



1840 



1981 



MILES 



| I I I 

POPULATION PER SQUARE MILE OF LAND AREA 



1780 




1820 



1860 



1900 



1940 



1980 



POPULATION 



POPULATION, TOTAL 



1610 1650 1700 1750 1780 



Thousands of Persons 
0.3 50.4 250.9 1,171 2,780 





1790 


1800 


1850 


1900 


1970 






Mill 


ons of Persons 




POPULATION, TOTAL 
Urban Territory 
Rural Territory 


3.9 
0.2 

3.7 


5.3 
0.3 
5.0 


23.2 

3.5 
19.6 


76.0 
30.2 
45.8 


203.2 

149.3 

53.9 


POPULATION PER SQUARE 
MILE 


4.5 


6.1 


7.9 


25.6 


57.5 



SOURCE HISTORICAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 



A NATION OF IMMIGRANTS 



29 



Immigrants Total 
45.4 Million Between 
Revolution and 1970 

The waves of humanity which 
have come to America's 
shores as immigrants since 
the close of the Revolu- 
tionary War to 1970 add up 
to 45.4 million men, women, 
and children— more than 
the entire 1870 population 
of the U.S. 



The countries or areas 
from which almost half the 
immigrants have come are: 
Germany, Italy, Ireland, 
Great Britain, U.S.S.R., 
and the Baltic States. 

The peak year for immi- 
gration into the U.S. was 
1907 when almost 1.3 million 
newcomers were recorded. 
Of this total, 93 percent 



came from Europe, with 
Italy alone contributing 
22 percent; 72 percent were 
males and 86 percent were 
in the 14 to 44 age bracket. 



MILLIONS 



1 1 1 1 — 

IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES 

I I I 



NORTHWEST EUROPE 
CENTRAL EUROPE 
EASTERN EUROPE 
SOUTHERN EUROPE 
ALL OTHER 



1820- 
1829 



1830- 
1839 



1 " 'I 

1840- 1850- 
1849 1859 




1860- 
1869 



1870- 
1879 



1880- 
1889 



1890- 


1900- 


1910- 


1920- 


1930- 


1940- 


1950- 


1960 


1899 


1909 


1919 


1929 


1939 


1949 


1959 


1969 



IMMIGRATION 



1820- 


1850- 


1900- 


1950- 


1960- 


1829 


1859 


1909 


1959 


1969 






Thousand; 






129 


2,815 


8,202 


2,499 


3,214 


90 


1,622 


1,483 


431 


420 


6 


977 


2,380 


705 


304 


4 


19 


2,166 


266 


389 


0.1 


0.5 


156 


9 


17 


29 


195 


568 


1,092 


2,075 



Immigration, Total 

Europe: 

Northwest Europe 
Central Europe 
Eastern Europe 
Southern Europe 
All Other, Total 



NOTE : Because of rounding, sums of individual 
items may not equal totals. 



SOURCE HISTORICAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 



30 VITAL STATISTICS 



Life Expectancy 
Improves Steadily 
for Average American 

Life expectancy for the 
U.S. white population has 
increased from 47.6 years 
for those persons born in 
1900 to 72.2 years for 
those born in 1973. For 
blacks and other races, it 
went from 33 to 65.9 years. 

PER 1 .000 POPULATION 



These life expectancy 
rates reflect a generally 
steady decline in the death 
rate (number of deaths- 
excluding fetal— per 1,000 
population) from 17.2 in 
1900 to 9.0 in 1975. 

In 1975, the birth rate 
dropped to 14.8 live births 
per 1,000 population. This 
is the lowest in history. 




1900 1920 

PER 100,000 POPULATION 



1940 



1960 



1980 




Death Causes Vary 
As Medical Research 
Leads to Treatment 

Death rates (deaths per 
100,000 population) for 
various diseases and ail- 
ments have fluctuated 
widely since 1900. 

For instance, deaths 
from tuberculosis in 1900 
hit a rate of 194.4, but by 
1975 had almost disappeared 

YEARS 



to a low of 1 .5. Flu deaths, 
too, showed a dramatic de- 
crease in the same period 
from 202.2 to 26.3. 

Various types of cancer 
(malignant neoplasms) in- 
creased in the death rate, 
from 64 in 1900 to 174.4 
in 1970. Death rates from 
heart and circulatory sys- 
tem ailments jumped in the 
same period from 345.2 to 
458.3. 




1900 



1920 



1940 



VITAL STATISTICS 



Birth Rate 
Death Rate 

By Cause, per 100,000 Population: 
Tuberculosis, All Forms 
Malignant Neoplasms 
Influenza and Pneumonia 
Major Cardiovascular 
Renal Diseases 



EXPECTATION OF LIFE 



At Birth, Total 
White 
Black and Other Races 

•1974 data 



1960 



1980 



1900 1950 1975 



Per 1,000 Population 



32.3 
17.2 



24.1 

9.6 



14.8 
9.0 



194.4 22.5 1.5 

64.0 139.8 174.4 

202.2 31.3 26.3 

345.2 510.8 458.3 



1900 1950 1975 



47.3 68.2 72.0* 
47.6 69.1 72.2 
33.0 60.8 65.9 



1900 



1920 



1940 



1960 



1980 



SOURCE HISTORICAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITEDSTATES 



EMPLOYMENT 



31 



100 



Nation's Labor Force 
Grows as Population, 
Businesses Expand 

The U.S. civilian labor 
force has increased more 
than 2 1 / 2 times between 1 900 
and 1975. 

Over this period the 
number of unemployed workers 
has fluctuated widely with 
the ups and downs of the 
general economy. 

MILLIONS OF PERSONS 



For example, unemploy- 
ment in the U.S. was at 
its highest in the depres- 
sion year of 1933 when 
25.2 percent of the civil- 
ian labor force was out of 
work. In contrast, the 
highest employment year 
was 1944 (during World 
War II when only 1.2 
percent was unemployed. 




Occupational Shifts 
Reflect Changes in 
the Economy 

How American workers earn 
their living has changed 
radically since 1820. Then 
the young Nation was pre- 
dominantly agricultural 
and nonfarm workers repre- 
sented only a small frac- 
tion of the total employ- 
ment figure. 

EMPLOYMENT 



With industrialization 
of the economy has come 
the predominance of white 
and blue collar workers in 
the work force. 



1820 1890 1900 1950 



1975 







Mill 


ons of Persons 




CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE 






28.4 


62.2 


92.6 


Employed 






26.9 


58.9 


84.8 


Unemployed 







1.4 


3.3 


7.8 


Percent of Civilian Labor Force 


- 


4.0 


5.0 


5.3 


8.5 


EMPLOYMENT BY OCCUPATION, 












TOTAL 


2.8 


23.3 


29.1 


59.7 


84.8 


Agricultural 


2.1 


9.9 


10.9 


7.4 


2.9 


Nonagricultural 


0.7 


13.4 


18.1 


52.3 


81.8 


White-Collar 


— 


— 


5.1 


22.4 


42.2 


Blue-Collar and Service Workers 


— 


— 


13.0 


29.9 


39.6 



1900 



1920 



1940 



1960 



1980 



PERCENT OF CIVILIAN 
LABOR FORCE 




1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 



1980 



90 
80 
70 
60 
50 
40 
30 
20 
10 




MILLIONS OF PERSONS 





EMPLOYMENT B 


Y OCCUPATION 












/- 


















y^ 


































































^^-^BLUE CC 


LLAR AND SERVI 


:E WORKERS 






























^AGRICULTURAL 






WHITE COLLAR W 


/ORKERS 










AGRICULTURAL 


AGRICULTURAL 

... .. .__ ,_.,* .. 












t= '^ 





1820 



1840 



1860 



1880 



1900 



1920 



1940 



1960 



1980 



SOURCE COPYRIGHTED-SEE SOURCE NOTES FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION. ALSO - HISTORICAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 



32 EDUCATION & SOCIAL WELFARE 



Education Progress 
In America 

In 1870, school enrollment 
of the white population 
included 54 percent of 
those aged 5-19. The cor- 
responding rate for black 
and other races was 10 per- 
cent. In 1970, enrollment 
percentages of the same 
age group were 88 for the 
white population and 85 for 



blacks and other races. 

In 1870, 16,000 persons 
or 2 percent of the 17-year- 
old population graduated 
from high school. By 1970 
the total reached 2.9 million 
or 76 percent. 

Twenty percent of the 
entire population was 
classed as illiterate in 
1870 but by 1969 the pro- 
portion had dropped to 1 
percent. 



Public Social Welfare 
Expenditures Grow 
To $146 Billion Level 

Social welfare expenditures 
under public programs 
totaled $318 million in 
1890. This represented 2.4 
percent of the U.S. gross 
national product. 

By 1970, the total expen- 
ded for welfare approached 



$146 billion, or 15.3 per- 
cent of the GNP. 

(These expenditures 
cover the Federal government, 
most States, and some local- 
ities.) 

Expressed on a per capita 
spending basis (actual 
prices), the 1970 spending 
was $701 compared with $32 
in 1929. 



PER 100 POPULATION 




900 



DOLLARS 



500 - 



1840 



1860 



1880 



1900 



1920 



1940 



1960 



1980 



PERCENT 



100 
80 
60 
40 
20 






ILLITERACY RATE 










, BLACK AND 

OTHER RACES 














TOTAL x 








WHITE-' 


s ^ s **»« w ^ 





1860 



1900 



1940 



1980 




100- 



1920 



1930 



1940 



1950 



1960 



1970 



1980 



SCHOOL ENROLLMENT RATES 



1850 1900 1950 1970 



Per 100 Population 



TOTAL 
White 
Black and Other Races 



47.2 50.5 78.7 87.9 

56.2 53.6 79.3 88.3 

1.8 31.1 74.8 85.3 



ILLITERACY 



1870 1900 1947 1969 



TOTAL 
White 
Black and Other Races 



Percent 



20.0 10.7 2.7 1.0 

11.5 6.2 1.8 0.7 

79.9 44.5 11.0 3.6 



PER CAPITA SOCIAL WELFARE 
EXPENDITURES 



1929 1950 1970 



PER CAPITA 

Social Welfare Expenditures 



Dollars 



3.2 15.3 70.1 



SOURCE HISTORICAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 



ELECTIONS & POLITICS 



33 



19th Century America 
Characterized by Heavier 
Voter Participation 

Voters in the 1800's ex- 
hibited greater interest in 
voting in Presidential 
elections. In fact, per- 
centage of the estimated 
eligible population casting 
votes frequently exceeded 
75 percent. In recent 
Presidential elections, the 



voter participation rate has 
stayed in the 60-percent 
range. 

Persons casting votes 
have ranged from a low of 
26.9 percent in 1840 to a 
high of 81.8 percent in 1876. 
Since 1900, the highest 
voter participation rate 
was 73.2 percent in 1900 
while the lowest came in 
1924 with 48.9 percent. 



Presidential Voting 
Shows Close Popular 
Votes in '60, '68 

The history of American 
Presidential voting is 
marked by a number of close 
popular votes. In 1960, 
J.F. Kennedy won over R.M. 
Nixon by only 11 9,000 votes 
out of the 68.8 million 
ballots cast. In turn, 
Nixon won over H.H. Humphrey 



in 1968 by 510,000 votes 
out of a 73.2 million total. 

In the 31 Presidential 
elections held from 1852 
to 1972, the Republican 
Party candidate won 18 
times and the Democratic 
Party candidate, 13. 



MILLIONS 




POPULAR VOTE CAST FOR PRESIDENT BY PARTY 



1820 



1860 



1900 



1980 



PERCENT 



1820 1840 1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 

SOURCE COPYRIGHTED-SEE SOURCE NOTES FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 











VOTE 


I 

R PARTK 


I ' 

;ipatioi\ 


IRATE 



















































































ELECTIONS & POLITICS 



1824 1860 1900 1940 1972 



Percent 



Voter Participation 



Popular Vote Cast: 
Whig/Republican 
Democrat 



26.9 81.2 73.2 62.5 63.0 



Millions 



1.9 7.2 22.3 47.2 

1.4 6.3 27.3 29.2 



34 NATIONAL INCOME & PRODUCT 



4,000 



Per Capita GNP and 
Personal Consumption 
Double Since 1929 

Both the gross national 
product and personal con- 
sumption expenditures per 
capita have more than 
doubled between 1929 and 
1974 (in constant 1958 
dollars). Per capita GNP 
rose from $1,671 in 1929 
to $3,875 in 1974. 

1958 DOLLARS 



Per capita disposable 
personal income (per capita 
personal income less per- 
sonal tax and nontax pay- 
ments) has continued a 
steady rise from the 
$1,831 figure in 1958 to 
the 1974 total of $2,845. 
During the depression 
years of 1932-34, the dis- 
posable personal income 



total dipped below $1,000, 
reaching a low point of 
$921 in 1932. 



2,000 



1,000 



500 




4,000 



1900 
1958 DOLLARS 



1910 



1920 



1930 



1940 



1950 



1960 



2,000 



1.000 



500 



PER CAPITA PERSONAL INCOME 



PER CAPITA 
PERSONAL INCOME 




PER CAPITA DISPOSABLE 
PERSONAL INCOME 



PER CAPITA PERSONAL 

TAX AND NONTAX PAYMENTS 



INCOME 



PER CAPITA 

Gross National Product 



Personal Consumption Expenditures 
Personal Income 
Disposal Personal Income 



1869 
1878 


1900 


1950 


1974* 




1958 : 


lollars 




531 


1,011 
1929 


2,342 

1950 


3,875 
1974* 




1,145 
1,274 
1,236 


1,520 
1,810 
1,646 


2,546 
3,341 
2,845 



"Preliminary 



1920 1940 1960 

SOURCE HISTORICAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 



1980 



BUSINESS AND FINANCIAL MARKETS 



35 



Number of U.S. 
Businesses Grew to 
Over 2.5 Million in 1960 

The total number of busi- 
ness concerns in the U.S. 
peaked at 2.7 million in 
1959 and 1960. The total 
had dropped to 2.6 million 
by 1974. 

Business concerns in 
the U.S. reached the 1 mil- 
lion mark in 1888. But it 



took only 36 more years 
before the number topped 
2 million in 1924. 

Since 1900 the highest 
business failure rate of 
154 per 10,000 business 
enterprises occurred in 
1932 during the depression. 

The fewest failures 
came in 1945 at the end of 
World War II when only 4 
out of every 10,000 busi- 
nesses failed. 



Common Stock Index 
Up Over Eightfold 
Since 1940-1943 

Between 1940-43 and 1975 
the Standard and Poor's 
index of common stocks 
has gone up from 1 to 
86.2. The index high 
point came in 1972, when 
it reached 109.2. 

The index consists of 
three parts: Industrial, 



railroad, and utilities. 
The industrial stock index 
reached a high of 121.8 
in 1972 before tapering off 
to 106.2 in 1974. The 
high mark for the utility 
index was 76.08 in 1965 
while the top railroad 
index was 48.84 in 1968. 



THOUSANDS 



3,000 



2,000 



,000 



700 



400 





: 










CONCER 


NS IN BUSH* 


JESS 



















































1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 



200 



PER 10,000 LISTED 
ENTERPRISES 



150 




100 



200 



100 



INDEX, 1941-43 




200 



100 



1860 1880 1900 

INDEX, 1941-43 = 10 



1980 



10 



I 1 I I 
COMPONENTS OF STANDARD AND POOR'S INDEX 

1 










INDUSTRIAL-" 




- 


UTILITIES" 




I 




- 




^ 


^L 






*y 


v</ 




All t 


1 J*v F 


iAILROAD 


. 




+* 




' 




^v 


r^J 




> 


■ 



1860 



1880 1900 



1920 



1940 1960 



1980 



BUSINESS/FINANCIAL MARKETS 



1870 1900 1950 1975 



Thousands 



Concerns in Business 

Failure Rate 

STANDARD & POOR'S INDEX 



427 1,174 2,687 2,591* 

Per 10,000 Listed Enterprises 

83 92 34 43 

1871 1900 1950 1975 



1941-43=10 



TOTAL 
Industrial 
Railroad 
Utilities 

*1974 data 



4.7 6.2 18.4 86.2 

2.0 3.4 18.3 96.6 

14.3 18.6 15.5 37.5 

15.9 24.2 20.0 41.2 



1860 1880 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 

SOURCE COPYRIGHTED-SEE SOURCE NOTES FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 



36 PRICES: HISTORICAL TRENDS 



200 



The Ups and Downs 
Of Prices in U.S. 
From 1860 to 1975 

Inflation, recession, war 
—all have played their 
part in shaping the jagged 
record of wholesale and 
consumer prices between 
1860 and 1975. 

The accompanying chart, 
which uses 1967 prices as 
the 100 index base, graphic- 

INDEX, 1967-100 



ally shows the widely 
differing price patterns. 

The lowest indicies of 
both wholesale and consumer 
prices were registered in 
the early 1890's. The 
highest have occurred in 
the last few years. 



5 Lbs. of Sugar Cost 
25 cents in 1932; Other 
Food Prices Compared 

The lowest retail prices on 
record in the U.S. since 
1890 for common food items 
are: 

Flour, 1 1.5 cents for 5 lb. 
in 1894; sugar, 25 cents for 
5 lb., 1932; round steak, 
12.2 cents per lb., 1894; bacon, 
12.5 cents per lb., 1890; butter. 



23.8 cents per lb., 1896; eggs 

18.9 cents per dozen, 1897; 
potatoes, 12 cents for 10 lb., 
1896; and milk, 13.4 cents fo 
half gal. (delivered), 
1897-99. 

For most foods listed in 
the accompanyinq charts, 
prices in 1970 are 
the highest since 1890. 



100 




1860 



1880 



1900 



1920 



1940 



1960 



198C 



220 

200 

180 

160 

140 

120 

100 

80 

60 

40 

20 





CENTS PER UNIT 



AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES OF SELECTED 
"FOODS IN U.S. CITIES " 



SUGAR (5LBS. 




220 

200 

180 

160 

140 

120 

100 

80 

60 

40 

20 





CENTS PER UNIT 





AVERAGE RETAIL PRICES OF SELECTED 






FOODS IN U 


.S. CITIES 




























POTATOES (1 


0LBS.) 1 
































BUTTER (1LB 


'~~— A A 




































f\ 










▼ ™ , ., M .,. . 








D 


tLivcncu ivn i 


-l\ \ Mi. uml.; 



1890 



1900 



1920 



1940 



1960 



1980 



1890 



1900 



1920 



1940 



1960 



1980 



SOURCE HISTORICAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 



MANUFACTURING 



37 



Average Annual Rise 
In Industrial Output 
Hit Peak in '40'45 

Since 1860, the most rapid 
growth in rates of indus- 
trial production came dur- 
ing the World War II years 
of 1 940 to 1 945 with annual 
increases of over 1 per- 
cent. 

Until that time, the 
only periods that the 



annual rise in industrial 
production averaged more 
than 8 percent came during 
1875-80 and 1885-90. 

Other periods when the 
figure almost reached 8 
percent were 1865-70, 
1900-05, and 1935-40. 

In 1925-30, the growth 
of industrial production 
averaged less than 1 per- 
cent per year. And in the 
depression era of 1930-35, 



industrial production went 
down on the average of 0.7 
percent a year. 

The Civil War marked 
the beginning of rapid 
growth in American indus- 
trial production. Indus- 
trial development received 
another impetus with the 
introduction of the assem- 
bly line process in the 
late 19th Century. 



200 



100 



50 



INDEX, 1967=100 



INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 




10 







).4 



1860 



1880 



1900 



1920 



1940 



1960 



1980 



MANUFACTURING 



1900 1950 1970 1975 



Industrial Production Index 



0.9 



Index, 1967=100 
6.3 44.9 106.7 113.7 



SOURCE HISTORICAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 



38 HOUSINGS CONSTRUCTION 



Almost 2 Million 
Housing Units 
Started in 1973 

In 1973, more housing units 
were started than in any 
other year in our history. 

The first 1 million 
housing starts year was 
1946, the year after World 
War II ended. In 1950, 
starts almost reached the 
2 million level. The 



million mark was exceeded 
for the first time in 1971. 
Prior to World War II, the 
peak was reached in 1925 
with 937,000 units. 

The low point in starts 
was in 1933, with 93,000 
units. 



New Construction 
Value at Highest 
During Late 1960's 

Since the end of World War 
II, new construction, in 
constant dollars, has in- 
creased without serious 
interruptions. The value 
put in place in the second 
half of the 60's was almost 
twice that of the previous 
peak years of the 20's. 



Owner-Occupied Housing 
Outnumbered Rented 
First in '45 

From 1890 through 1940, 
fewer than half of the 
Nation's housing units 
were owner-occupied. In 
1945 the percentage of 
owner-occupied units was 
53.2 and by 1970 owners 
outnumbered by 63 to 67 
percent. 



MILLIONS Of UNITS 



0.5 



0.1 



0.04 



NEWHOUS 


ING UNITS ST/ 


\RTED 




A 








Av 


v\ 






A / 


I 




: \» 





1 


I 




_ i iiii 




T 




■ 



100 



PERCENT 



TENURE OF OCCUPIED HOUSING UNITS 



80 -- 



60 -- 



40 -- 



20 -- 



OWNER OCCUPIED 



RENTER OCCUPIED 



1890 1900 



1920 



1940 



1960 



1980 



1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1973 



BILLIONS OF 1957 - 1959 
DOLLARS 



100 



50 



10 



- 


VALUE OFT 


JEWCONSTRU 


CTION PUT IN 


PLACE 

TOTAL 












PRIVATE 

/public 


















■ 


■ 









1920 1930 1940 1950 

SOURCE HISTORICAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 



1960 



1970 



00 -, 


PERCENT 












MORTGAGE STATUS OF NONFARM OWNER-OCCUF 
HOUSING UNITS 


MED 






NONN 


10RTGAGED 




































n _ 


i 




• 


. 



1959 



HOUSING 



1961 



1963 



1900 



1967 



1950 1975 



196' 



Housing Starts 

VALUE OF NEW 
CONSTRUCTION 



Millions of Units 
0.3 0.2 1.9 



1.2 



1920 1950 1970 



TOTAL 

Private 

Public 



Billions of Dollars 

14.7 43.6 60.2 

12.3 34.3 42.3 

2.4 9.3 17.9 



FOREIGN TRADE 



39 



Exports, Imports 
Play Large Role 
In U.S. Commerce 

The value of America's 
foreign trade (total mer- 
chandise, gold, and silver) 
has grown substantially 
since the end of World 
War II. 

In 1975, the value of 
exports totaled $106.2 bil- 
lion compared with imports 



of $96.1 billion, a $10.1 
billion favorable balance 
of trade, the first since 
1970. Prior totals exceeded 
imports back in 1 941 . The 
depression era from 1934 
through 1940, however, saw 
an unbroken annual string 
of negative foreign trade 
balances where imports ex- 
ceeded exports. 



English-American 
Trade Bounced Back 
Quickly from War 

The traditional commercial 
ties between America and 
Great Britain were quickly 
recemented following the 
Revolutionary War. 

With exports and imports 
between the two Nations at 
a low ebb from 1776 to 1782, 
trade increased beginning 



in 1783. 

Imports from England 
reached a level of over 1 mil- 
lion pounds sterling by 1783 
but exports from the new 
United States to England 
did not again too that 
figure until 1790. 

By 1791, the value of 
imports from England were 
running at almost a 4-1 
ratio over exports from 
America. 



MILLIONS OF POUNDS STERLING 




VALUE OF IMPORTS & EXPORTS 
FROM ENGLAND 



1697 1700 1750 1791 







Millions of Po 


jnds Sterling 


Exports 




0.3 


0.4 


0.8 


1.0 


Imports 




0.1 


0.3 


1.3 


4.0 


VALUE OF EXPORTS 












& IMPORTS 


1790 


1800 


1900 


1950 


1975 






Bil 


ions of D 


ollars 




Exports 


0.02 


0.07 


1.5 


10.8 


106.2 


Imports 


0.02 


0.09 


0.9 


9.1 


96.1 



1680 



1700 



1720 



1740 



1760 



1780 



1800 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



100 



10 



0.1 



no 



.001 





1 
EXPORTS AND IMPORTS 






















































EXPORTS J 

*^y^ im 


3 ORTS / 




























: 
























— • 
















1 


• 



1780 1800 1820 1840 

SOURCE HISTORICAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 



1860 



1880 



1900 



1920 



1940 



1960 



1980 



40 AGRICULTURE 



50 



40 



30 



20 



10 



lion, or 41 .9 percent of 
the U.S. total. By 1974, 
the number had decreased 
to only 4.4 percent of the 
national population. 



Farm Population 
Steadily Declines 
As Percent of Total 

One of the most dramatic 
changes in American life 
has been the almost con- 
tinuous decline of the 
farm population as a per- 
centage of the total 
population. 

In 1900, the farm pop- 
ulation totaled 29.9 mil- 



PERCENT 

i 1 1 1 

FARM POPULATION AS A PERCENT OF TOTAL POPULATION 



1880 



1900 



1920 



1940 



1960 



1980 



BILLIONS Of UNITS 




60 



50 



40 



30 



20 



10 



Crop Production, 
Farmer Productivity 
Continue to Rise 

While American agriculture 
has constantly increased 
its production of such 
major crops as corn, cotton, 
and tobacco, this has been 
accomplished with fewer and 
fewer workers. 

For example, in 1820, 
one farmworker was able to 

NUMBER 





PERJ 
FAR 


;ons su 

VIWORK 


PPLIED 
ER 


PER 








































/ 













25 



20 



15 



10 



supply food and fiber for 
four persons. With changing 
technology and increasing 
specialization— including 
the transfer of former 
farm jobs and functions to 
nonfarm businesses, the 
number of persons supplied 
by one farmworker reached 
52.4 in 1972. 



BILLIONS 



* 



— r- 

MAN-HOURS 
REQUIRED 
ON FARMS 



1820 



1900 



1980 



1900 



1940 



1980 



1940 



1960 



1980 



FARM POPULATION 



Percent of Total Population 



1880 1900 1950 1974 



43.8 41.9 



15.3 



4.4 



FARM PRODUCTIVITY 



1820 



1900 



1950 1972 



Persons Supplied Per Farmworker 



4.1 



7.0 



15.5 52.4 



CROP PRODUCTION 



Corn (Bushels) 
Tobacco (Pounds) 



1866 1900 1950 1974 



Billions of Units 
0.7 2.7 3.1 



0.3 



0.8 



2.0 



4.7 
2.0 



1910 



1950 1974 



Man-Hours Required on Farms 



Billions of Man-Hours 

22.5 15.1 5.6 



SOURCE HISTORICAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 



COMMUNICATION & TRANSPORTATION 



41 



Technology Sparks 
Communication Growth 
In Telephone, TV Use 

One hundred years ago there 
was one telephone for each 
10,000 persons in the U.S. 
By 1974, there were 3 tele- 
phones for every 2 persons. 
Between 1920 and 1974 
the number of daily news- 
papers declined from 2,042 
to 1,768, but daily plus 



Sunday circulation increased 
from 44.9 million to 
113.6 million over the 
same period. 

The number of television 
sets in use increased from 
8,000 in 1945 to 96.6 mil- 
lion in 1974. The number 
of radio sets rose from 
552,000 in 1920 to 62 mil- 
lion in 1970. 



$00 
>00 

too 

!00 




!50 



PER 1000 POPULATION 





TELEPH 


DNES 


































y/ 
















■ 



1860 1880 
THOUSANDS 



1900 



1920 



1940 



1960 



20 
00 
80 
60 
40 



1910 
THOUSANDS 



1930 



1950 



1970 



1960 



1920 1940 1960 

SOURCE COPYRIGHTED-SEE SOURCE NOTES FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION 



1980 




1990 





I 

CIRCULATION OF DAILY AND 
SUNDAY NEWSPAPERS 





























1980 




150 

120 

90 

60 

30 



450 
350 
250 

150 

150 

120 

90 

60 

30 





MILLIONS 



I I I r~ 

MOTOR VEHICLE REGISTRATIONS 



19001910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 
THOUSANDS 



I 

MILEAGE OF 

RAILROAD 

TRACK 






"—- -, 


OPERATED 










■ 


i 


.... . i — , .. 


. L 





1880 1900 

BILLIONS 



1920 



1940 



1960 



1980 





I I 

AIR REVENUE PASSENGER MILES 
















































• 







1930 



1940 



1950 



1960 



1970 



1980 



TRANSPORTATION 



1890 1900 1930 1950 1974 



1980 



Railroad, Mileage of 

Track Operated (Thousands) 
Air Revenue Passenger Miles 

Flown (Billions) 
Motor Vehicle Registration 

(Millions) 

COMMUNICATION 



199.9 258.8 429.9 396.4 354.0 b 

0.1 8.0 129.7 

0.0 26.7 49.2 130.7 

1876 1900 1950 1974 



1980 



Telephones, Per 1,000 Population 



Newspaper Circulation (Milions) 

Households with (Millions): 
Radio 
Television 

Telegraph, Messages Handled (Thousands) 
Mail, Pieces Handled (Billions) 
First Class and Airmail 

a1970data b1973data 



0.1 17.6 280.9 677.0 

1920 1930 1950 1974 

44.9 66.0 100.4 113.6 

13.7 40.7 62.0 a 

3.9 59.6 a 

155.9 211.9 178.9 37.0 b 



17.0 25.3 



52.9 



42 FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FINANCES 



Federal Budget Growth 
Reflection of Change 
in Governmental Role 

The changing role of the 
Federal Government in the 
American society is clearly 
shown in tracing receipts 
and expenditures since 1 789. 

The Nation's first bud- 
get in 1789-91 produced a 
slim $150,000 surplus on 
expenditures of $4.3 million. 



During the Nation's 
first 150 years (1789-1939) 
Federal Government bud- 
getary surpluses came in on the 
average of two out of every 
three years: in only 51 
years during that span was 
the Federal budget in 
deficit. 

The Nation's first $1 
billion-plus federal expend- 
iture year came in 1917 as 
World War I began. 



Per Capita Share 

of Federal Debt Shot Up 

During Wartime 

In 1916, the year before 
World War I started, the 
per capita share of the 
Federal Government debt was 
a modest $12.02. But the 
Federal borrowing needed to 
win that war pushed the per 
capita debt to $242.56 by 
1919. 



Until 1971, the peak 
year for the per capita 
debt figure, however, was 
1946 at the close of World 
War II when it reached 
$1,905. By 1974, the per 
capita debt had reached 
$2,242. 

This was a far cry from 
the lowest per capita debt 
figure of 93 cents in 
1857. 



400 



100 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS (RATIO SCALE 




0.01 



0.001 



3,000 



1,000 



100 



1780 1800 1820 

DOLLARS (RATIO SCALE) 



1840 



1860 



1880 



1900 



1920 



1940 



1960 



T 



T 



PER CAPITA PUBLIC DEBT OUTSTANDING 







FEDERAL FINANCES 


1789 


1850 


1900 


1950 


1975 






Bill 


ons of Dollars 




Receipts 
Outlays 

DOLLARS 


0.004 
0.004 


0.044 
0.039 

1851 


0.6 
0.5 

1900 


40.9 

43.1 

1950 


281.0 
324.6 

1974 


Per Capita Public Debt 




2.85 


16.60 


1,696.67 


2,242.00 



1840 



1860 



1880 



1900 



1920 



1940 



1960 



1980 



SOURCE HISTORICAL STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 



Section II 



community 



43 



Local Government 
Revenue 

Sources of Local Govern- 
ment Revenue 44 

Counties 44 

Cities 44 

Townships 44 

Public Labor-Manage- 
ment Relations 

Public Labor-Management 
Agreements 45 

State and Local Government 
Work Stoppages 45 

General Housing 
Characteristics 

Number of Housing Units in 
the Total Housing Inven- 
tory 50 

Median Age of Housing 50 

Distribution of U.S. Housing 
Inventory: 1960 and 1974 51 

New Units Built During 
1970-1974 As Percentage of 
1974 Housing Inventory— 

By Location 52 

By Region 52 

Value of Owner-Occupied 
Housing Units 53 

Gross Rent of Renter- 
Occupied Housing Units 53 

Housing Stock by Type of 
Structure 53 



Crime Index Trends 

Total Crime Index 54 



Violent Crime 54 

Propetry Crime 54 

Percent Change in Reported 
Serious Crime 

By Geographic Region 55 

By Type of Area 55 

Criminal Justice 
Expenditures 

Direct Expenditures of the 
Criminal Justice System: 
1971-1974 56 

1974 Total Full-Time 
Equivalent Criminal 
Justice Employees 56 

Distribution of Direct 
Criminal Justice Expendi- 
tures by Function 57 

Voter Registration & 
Participation 

Participation in Presidential 
and Congressional Elec- 
tions 58 

Percent of Population Reported 
Voting 58 

Registration and Voting by 
Race and Region 59 

Registration and Voting by 
Family Income 59 

Percent Registered to Vote 
by Age and Education: 
1974- 60 

Reported Reasons for Not 
Registering to Vote 61 

Reported Reasons for Not 
Voting 61 



Transportation Trends 

Passenger-Miles Traveled 62 




44 LOCAL GOVERNMENT REVENUE 



100 



90 



80 



Local Governments 
Get More Revenue 
From U.S., States 

In Fiscal 1974-1975, direct 
Federal Government grants 
to county, city, and town- 
ship governments were $8.3 
billion, equivalent to 22 
percent of their own revenue 
raised from taxes, compared 
with $2.9 billion, or 9.9 
percent in 1971-1972. This 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



is primarily a result of 
the Federal General Revenue 
Sharing Program begun in 
October 1972. 

During the same period, 
State funds as a source of 
local government revenue 
also rose substantially 
from $18.3 billion to $25 
billion. 

In FY 1974-1975, these 
combined revenues from 
Federal and State sources 



SOURCES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT REVENUE 



LOCAL TAXES & 

INTERGOVERNMENTAL 

REVENUE 



Local Intergovernmental Revenue 
From Federal Government 
From State Governments 

Local Tax Revenue 
Property Taxes 
Sales, Income, and Other Taxes 



FISCAL 


FISCAL 


YEAR 


YEAR 


1972 


1975 


Billions of Dollars 


21.2 


33.3 


2.9 


8.3 


18.3 


25.0 


29.7 


37.1 


22.0 


26.5 


7.7 


10.6 




STATE 

INTERGOVERNMENTAL 

REVENUE 




SALES, INCOME, AND 
OTHER TAXES 



were equal to 90 percent 
of local governments own 
tax revenue compared to 71 
percent in FY 1971-1972. 

Since FY 1971-1972, 
State and Federal payments 
have become a major source 
of county revenues. During 
the same period, inter- 
governmental revenue has 
increased sharply as a 
source of funds for cities, 
particularly in FY 1974. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




1972 



1973 



1974 



1 97S 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 





BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 








4 - 


TOWNSHIPS 




TAX 
REVENUE 


J - 






RGOVERNMENTAL 
ENUE 




z - 




INTE 
REV 


n _ 









1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



PUBLIC LABOR-MANAGEMENT RELATIONS 



45 



Public Labor Contracts 
Rise 29% from 
1972 to 1974 

Binding public labor- 
management contractual 
agreements increased signi- 
ficantly between October 
1972 and October 1974. The 
total number of State and 
local government contracts 
increased from 13,323 in 
1972 to 17,161 in 1974 



(29 percent). The total 
number of all agreements 
rose from 19,547 to 23,820, 
or 22 percent. The differ- 
ence was due to nonbinding 
memoranda of understanding 
which rose only 7 percent 
in the 2-year period. 

Although the rate of in- 
crease of contractual agree- 
ments was high at all levels 
of local government, it was 
particularly strong for 







counties (up 56.9 percent) 
and school districts (up 
30 percent). 

This trend since 1972 
toward more formalized 
labor-management relations 
is partly attributable to 
new legislation in many 
States that either permits 
or requires collective 
negotiations between govern- 
ment representatives and 
employee organizations. 



8 



School districts experi- 
enced 228 work stoppages in 
1974, a 50-percent increase 
over the 152 school district 
work stoppages in 1972. 

During the 12-month period 
ending October 15, 1974, 
most State or local govern- 
ment work stoppages occurred 
during the renegotiation 
phase of an existing labor- 
management agreement. 



12 



14 



STATES 




1972 


1 1 .01 


1974 


1 1 .01 


COUNT I ES 




1972 


| 1 .23 


1974 


1 1 .71 


CITIES 




1972 




1974 




TOWNSH I PS 




1972 


1 1 .70 


1974 


J 2. 00 


SCHOOL DISTRICTS 




1972 




1974 




SPECIAL DISTRICTS 




1972 


|0.80 


1974 


io.84 



PUBLIC LABOR-MANAGEMENT AGREEMENTS 



CONTRACTUAL AGREEMENTS 

MEMORANDA OF 
UNDERSTANDING 



4.49 



:::iT-'':-/;S? 



5.57 




12.69 



6 8 

THOUSANDS OF AGREEMENTS 



10 



12 



14 




250 



100 150 

NUMBER OF WORK STOPPAGES 



250 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



46 



CENSUS YEAR 
OF MAXIMUM 
COUNTY 
POPULATION 




A. 1970 

B. 1930-1960 

C. 1910-1920 

D. 1900 OR 
EARLIER 



PERCENTOF 
POPULATION 
65 YEARS OLD 
AND OVER 




PEICENT OF POPULATION 
65 TEAIS OLD AND OVK 



A. 16.0 AND 

OVER 
B. 12. 0-15.9 
C. 8.0-11. 9 
D. 0-7.9 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



map of 
the month 



47 



INTRODUCTION 

The centerfold which follows 
will each month contain a 
map designed to identify 
more clearly geographic areas 
of special concern. The map 
featured this month shows 
the possibilities for using 
statistical maps as an 
analytical tool. By pre- 
senting two variables in con- 
trasting colors on a single 
map, a graphic portrayal 
of the spatial geographic 
relationships that exist 
between them can be readily 
provided. The map was 
created by combining or 
"crossing" two single vari- 
able maps. Small versions 
of the two single variable 
maps are shown on page 46. 
The red and yellow map pre- 
sents information on the 
"Percent of Population 65 
Years Old and Over" and the 
blue and yellow map depicts 
the "Census Year of Maximum 
County Population." 

When examing the two- 
variable (census year and 
population over 65) maps, it 
can be determined whether 
the interrelationships be- 
tween the selected variables 
do, in fact, differ by 
geographic region and, if so, 
how. If the relationships, 
as far as geographic loca- 
tion was concerned, were 



essentially random, the re- 
sulting map would show no 
particular tendency toward 
an areal concentration of 
similar colors but, instead, 
would exhibit a patchwork of 
small contrasting color 
blocks throughout the 
country. 

Examination of the map 
shows that there is, indeed, a 
geographic variation in the 
distribution of older Ameri- 
cans as related to the year 
of maximum county population. 
The sixteen individual 
colors which make up the 
map (each representing a 
particular combination of 
the two variables) are fre- 
quently seen to be concen- 
trated in sizable groups of 
contiguous counties. Further, 
these contiguous county 
groups can also be shown to 
have demographic character- 
istics or historical cir- 
cumstances that are similar 
for the entire geographic 
area. 

The color spectrum select- 
ed to differentiate the age 
variable uses purples and 
reds to identify areas which 
have a high proportion of 
"young" populations (that 
is, areas with a small pro- 
portion of the population 



aged 65 and over) and blues, 
greens, and yellows to 
identify areas with "older" 
populations (that is, areas 
with a large proportion of 
the population aged 65 years 
old and over). Among these 
"older" areas, those in 
yellow, light orange, light 
green, or light violet rep- 
resent counties that reached 
their maximum population in 
1920 or earlier. (Usually, 
these counties have experi- 
enced a long history of 
declining population and 
although some of them are 
currently experiencing new 
growth, they have not yet 
attained their earlier 
population levels.) 

The counties which are 
colored yellow form a large 
and conspicuous block in 
the center of the country, 
focused on the Iowa-Missouri 
border area. Scattered 
within this block, and on 
the perimeter surrounding 
this area, are many orange- 
colored counties showing 
similar population declines. 
These yellow and orange 
counties are heavily rural 
with a long history of 
outmigration. That is, 
there has historically been 
an outmigration of the 
younger population, primarily 



to seek job opportunity else- 
where; hence the older 
population has become pro- 
portionately large. By the 
late 1960's many of these 
counties contained such a 
large proportion of elderly 
persons that deaths out- 
numbered births. 

In direct contrast to the 
yellow/orange counties are 
the counties showing dark 
shades of green. These 
counties, while they also 
contain a large proportion 
of elderly, differ in that 
they demonstrate recent 
population growth. The 
largest concentration of 
these counties appears in 
peninsular Florida where 
it represents retirement 
areas. Other dark green 
"retirement" counties 
appear in central Texas, 
the Ozarks, Cape Cod, and 
southern New Jersey. North 
and south of San Francisco, 
the dark green of Lake and 
Santa Cruz Counties in 
California similarly identi- 
fy retirement areas. 



48 



DISTRIBUTIONS OF OLDER 
AMERICANS IN 1970 
RELATED TO YEAR OF 
MAXIMUM COUNTY 
POPULATION 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 




49 




PERCENT OF POPULATION 
65 YEARS OLD AND OVER 



1970 
1930-1960 



1900 OR 
EARLIER 



-A J 

J 1 u 



.s~- 



ALMRS EQUAL AttA PROJECTION 



48 



49 



DISTRIBUTIONS OF OLDER 
AMERICANS IN 1970 
RELATED TO YEAR OF 
MAXIMUM COUNTY 
POPULATION 




/« 


* 






• 








- 


., Jt 


\ 
















( 






^ 












Si 


ALASKA! COUNTY DATA 














NOT AVAILABLE 
















v5i 


f 




H'\ 






A- .-, ~ ~ CSP* 


^T 


■ "* >» » 






WSKA 




£> - 







PERCENT Ol I'OI'UIAIION 
65 YEARS OtD AND OVER 





J" O 


-■ 




10 ittn ^H 




""-"L 




**1 'IN |"" 
ANItltt J__ 





50 GENERAL HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 



Housing Inventory Up 69% 
From 1950 to 1974 While 
Population Increased 39% 

The percent increase in occu- 
pied housing units has ex- 
ceeded the percentage growth 
in the population since the 
turn of the century. Between 
1950 and 1974 the Nation's 
housing inventory (total 
number of housing units) 
expanded from 46.0 million 



units to 77.6 million units, 
an increase of 68.8 percent. 
In the 4/2 years from April 
1970 to October 1974, the 
total number of housing units 
increased by 8.9 million— 
a 10.3-percent gain. 

As the housing inventory 
grew, the median age of 
housing declined from 28 
years in 1950 to 22 years 
in 1974. 



MILLIONS OF HOUSING UNITS 



60 - 



20 - 




NUMBER OF HOUSING UNITS 
IN THE TOTAL HOUSING 
INVENTORY 



1950 



1960 



1970 



1974 



YEARS 



30- 



25 - 



20 - 




15 - 



10 - 



MEDIAN AGE OF 
HOUSING 



1950 

SOURCE BUBEAU OF THE CENSUS 



1960 



1970 



1974 



GENERAL HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 



51 



U.S. Housing Stock 
Continues To Shift With 
People to Metro Areas 

Between 1960 and 1974 the 
Nation's housing stock con- 
tinues to shift toward metro- 
politan areas. In 1960, 
62.4 percent of all housing 
units were located inside 
SMSA's. By 1974, the per- 
centage had expanded to 
67.1. Suburban growth 



accounted for the total 
metropolitan increase. In 
fact, the percentage of 
housing units in the central 
cities decreased from 33.7 
percent in 1960 to 31 percent 
in 1974. 

During the same years, 
the proportion of units 
located outside metropolitan 
areas decreased from 37.6 
percent in 1960 to 32.9 
percent in 1974. 



Following general population 
trends, the proportion of 
U.S. housing located in the 
West and South increased 
between 1960 and 1974 while 
the proportion of total 
units in the Northeastern 
and North Central regions 
decreased. The greatest 



change occurred in the West 
where the percentage of 
total housing units in- 
creased from 16.4 percent 
to 18.3— an 11.6-percent 
rise. 



DISTRIBUTION OF 1960 U.S. HOUSING INVENTORY 



SMSA'S 






(TOTAL HOUSING UNITS = 58.3 MILLION) 


NORTHEAST 




25.4 












H CENTRAL 




28.8 












SOUTH 


| 29.4 

1 






16.4 


WEST 












I 




I I l 



20 



40 60 

PERCENT 



80 



100 



DISTRIBUTION OF 1974 U.S. HOUSING INVENTORY 



N ^ SM !^ S *.,„ 




(TOTAL HOUSING UNITS = 77.6 MILLION) 



NORTHEAST 



NORTH CENTRAL 



26.5 



SOUTH 



WEST 




31.9 



—i r~ 

40 60 
PERCENT 



80 



100 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



52 GENERAL HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 



Suburbs Lead the Way in 
New Housing; South Heads 
Regional Building 

Nearly 13 percent of all 
units in the 1974 Housing 
Inventory were built since 
1970. The largest propor- 
tion of the new construction 
—4.5 million units— occurred 
in the suburbs of large met- 
ropolitan areas. The new 
units comprised more than 



16 percent of total housing 
units in those suburban 
areas. Over 2 million units 
were built in central cities, 
bringing total metropolitan 
area housing construction 
(inside SMSA's) to 6.6 
million units. 

Construction in nonmetro- 
politan areas between 1970 
and 1974 amounted to 3.4 



million units (13.2 percent 
of the total nonmetropoli- 
tan housing inventory). 

By geographical region, 
the largest volume of home 
building occurred in the 
South, where 4.3 million 
units have been built since 
1970. The Northeast reported 
the lowest volume of new 
home construction. 



50 



PERCENT 



40 - 



30 - 



20 - 



12.9 




NEW UNITS BUILT DURING 1970-1974 AS PERCENTAGE 
OF 1974 HOUSING INVENTORY-BY LOCATION 



16.2 



12.7 




8.6 



"I 



13.2 



9,983 

U.S. 
TOTAL 



6.613 



2,078 



4.535 



INSIDE 


IN 


NOT IN 


SMSA ' s 


CENTRAL 


CENTRAL 




CITIES 


CITIES 



3,370 

OUTS I DE 
SMSA ' s 



THOUSANDS OF NEW UNITS 





PERCENT 


















1(1 
















NEW UNITS BUILT DURING 1970-1974 AS PERCENTAGE 










OF 1974 HOUSING INVENTORY-BY REGION 


40 - 










30- 










20 - 




12.9 






17.4 


1fi 4 




102 






























10 - 






















- 








6.9 















9.983 

U.S. 
TOTAL 



1 .248 

NORTHEAST 



2.097 



NORTH 
CENTRAL 



4.312 
SOUTH 



2.326 
WEST 



THOUSANDS OF NEW UNITS 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



GENERAL HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 



53 



Housing Median Value 
Increases 60% From 
1970 to 1974 

The median value of the 
Nation's owner-occupied 
housing rose from $17,100 
in 1970 to $27,200 in 1974, 
an increase of nearly 60 
percent. In 1970, the 
largest proportion (21.2 
percent) of all owner- 



occupied homes was valued 
at less than $10,000 while 
the smallest proportion of 
homes (9.6 percent) was 
valued at $35,000 or more. 
However, in 1974, the lowest 
percentage (7.8 percent) of 
owner-occupied dwellings 
was valued under $10,000 
while the highest percent- 
age (30.9 percent) was in 
the $35,000 or more category. 



Median gross rent for cash 
rental units increased 32.4 
percent between 1970 and 
1974. Accordingly, the per- 
centage of persons paying 
higher rents increased 
sharply. In 1974, for 
example, 19.8 percent of 
all renters paid $200 or 
more, compared to only 7 
percent in 1970. 



Single-Family Houses 
Decline in Share of 
Total Housing Stock 

The number of 1-unit struc- 
tures increased between 
1970 and 1974, but their 
share of the total (year- 
round) housing inventory 
dropped from 69.1 percent 
to 67.5. The proportion of 
2- to 4-unit structures 
also declined. 



PERCENT OF UNITS 



PERCENT 




100 



UNDER $10,000- $15,000- $20,000- $25,000- $35,000 

$10,000 $14,999 $19,999 $24,999 $34,999 OR MORE 



PERCENT OF UNITS 



GROSS RENT OF RENTER-OCCUPIED HOUSING UNITS 



1970 (MEDIAN GROSS RENT $108) 
1974 (MEDIAN GROSS RENT $143) 




90 - 



80 - 



70 - 



60 - 



50 - 



40 - 



30 - 



20 



10 - 



HOUSING STOCK BY TYPE OF STRUCTURE 



F I 



1970 
1974 



69.1 



67.5 






4.9 

3.1 1 



UNDER 
$50 



$50 
TO $99 



$100 $150 $200 

TO $149 TO $199 OR MORE 



1 UNIT 2-4 UNITS 5 OR MORE OCCUPIED 

UNITS MOBILE HOMES 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



54 CRIME INDEX TRENDS 



Crime Rate Rise Slows 
In 1975 to Half That 
Reported in 1974 

Preliminary figures indicate 
that the percent increase 
in serious crime reported 
in the Nation slowed to 9 
percent in 1975 following 
a sharp increase of 18 per- 
cent in 1974. The change 
in the crime rate has fluc- 
tuated widely since 1969, 



reflecting increased crime 
levels in every year except 
1972 when the actual level 
of serious crime dropped 
4 percent. 

As a group, violent 
crimes increased 5 percent 
in 1975, while property 
crimes rose 9 percent. In 



1975 there were 1 percent 
fewer murders reported than 
in 1974. This was the only 
category to decline during 
the year. 



PERCENT CHANGE OVER PREVIOUS YEAR 



1°^ 9% 

6% 6% 

I ■ ■ ■ 


13", 


9% 

■ 


-4% 
1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 



TOTAL CRIME INDEX 







MURDER 


L 


FORCIBLE RAI 
10% 


>E 


R 
2% 


OBBEF 
15% 


!Y 
5% 

■ 


A 


3GRA\ 


'ATED 
8% 


ASSAL 


JLT 




6% 






8% 


7% 








1% 














b 1 




5% 




















I 








1973 1974 


MM) 
■1% 
1975 


1973 1974 1975 


1973 1974 1975 


1973 1974 1975 



VIOLENT CRIME 




LARCENY-THEFT MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT 

21% 





12% 








■ 










5 ., 


5% 







1973 1974 1975 



1973 1974 1975 



PROPERTY CRIME 



SOURCE f EDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION 



CRIME INDEX TRENDS 

Violent/Property Crime 
Increases at Differing 
Rates by U.S. Region 

Between 1974 and 1975, 
total crime rates increased 
in all four geographic 
regions of the United 
States, with property 
crime rising more than 
violent crime in all but 
the Western States. 



55 



While the West reported 
the sharpest percent in- 
crease in violent crimes, 
it showed the lowest over- 
all rise in total crime- 
equaling 6 percent, a rate 
3 percentage points below 
the 1975 national average. 

The greatest overall 
increase in serious crime 
was the 1 1 -percent rise 
reported in the South. 



Both violent and property 
crimes increased more 
rapidly in the suburbs than 
in larger cities over 
25,000 or in rural areas. 
Suburban law enforcement 
agencies reported a 10- 
percent overall crime in- 
crease in 1975, compared to 
8 percent and 9 percent 
hikes in large cities and 
rural areas, respectively. 



PERCENT CHANGE IN REPORTED SERIOUS CRIME: BY GEOGRAPHIC REGION 



NORTHEASTERN STATES 



NORTH CENTRAL STATES 



SOUTHERN STATES 



WESTERN STATES 






6% 



10% 



VIOLENT CRIME 
PROPERTY CRIME 




12% 



-| 1 1 1 r~ 

6 8 10 12 14 

PERCENT CHANGE 19750VER 1974 



- 1 1 

16 18 20 



BY TYPE OF AREA 



CITIES OVER 25,000 



SUBURBAN 



RURAL 



4% 



E 



VIOLENT CRIME 
PROPERTY CRIME 




10% 




9% 



12 



8 10 12 

PERCENT CHANGE 1975 OVER 1974 



- 1 1 

16 18 20 



SOURCE LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTANCE ADMINISTRATION AND BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



56 CRIMINAL JUSTICE EXPENDITURES 



Direct Expenditures for 
Ciminal Justice* 

Local government spending 
for criminal justice 
activities continues to 
exceed that of Federal and 
State governments by a 
substantial margin. This 
imbalance of direct spend- 
ing has remained virtually 
unchanged during the decade. 
In 1971, local government 



expenditures accounted for 
63 percent of the total 
criminal justice budget. 
During Fiscal Year 1974 
local governments disbursed 
$9.1 billion, or 60.7 per- 
cent of all Criminal Justice 
System expenditures. 



*Direct expenditures 
include all expenditures 
except payments to other 
governments. 



Full-Time Equivalent 
Employment in Criminal 
Justice System 

The percent distribution of 
criminal justice employment 
among levels of government 
has generally followed the 
pattern of direct expendi- 
tures. In October 1974, 
nearly two-thirds of the 
1 million full-time equiva- 
lent criminal justice 



employees were on local 
government payrolls. State 
governments employed 25 
percent of all criminal 
justice workers; while 
the Federal Government 
supported 9.3 percent. 



FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 
1971 
1972 
1973 
1974 

STATE GOVERNMENT 
1971 
1972 
1973 
1974 

LOCAL GOVERNMENT 
1971 
1972 
1973 
1974 
ALL GOVERNMENTS 
1971 
1972 
1973 
1974 



C 



1.2 



1.5 



2.0 



2.7 



2.9 



I 3 3 

i 



3.9 



DIRECT EXPENDITURES OF THE 

CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM: 

1971-1974 



6.6 



7.3 



8.1 



9.1 



10.5 



11.7 




15.0 



~i 1 r~ 

6 8 10 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



12 



14 



16 



1974 

TOTAL FULLTIME EQUIVALENT 

CRIMINAL JUSTICE EMPLOYEES 

(1,011,205) 



LOCAL EMPLOYEES 
(664,862) 




FEDERAL EMPLOYEES 
(93,755) 



STATE EMPLOYEES 
(252.588) 



Source: Law Enforcement Assistance Administration and Bureau of the Census 



CRIMINAL JUSTICE EXPENDITURES 



Distribution of Direct 
Expenditures by Function 

In 1974, Federal and local 
governments disbursed more 
than half of their total 
criminal justice funds for 
police protection. 

At the Federal level, 
police protection expendi- 
tures reflected cost 
increases in the U.S. 



Capitol Park Unit, Drug 
Enforcement Administration 
Internal Revenue Service 
Intelligence Division, 
and the Postal Inspection 
Service. 

Large police costs in 
local budgets were due to 
broad county and municipal 
spending in that area. 
Municipal governments spent 
83 cents of every criminal 



justice dollar for police 
protection. This was 
matched by more than a 
third of the total budget 
at the county level. 

The largest percentage of 
State government funding— 
46.5 percent— was spent 
for corrections; while 
police protection accounted 
for 33.5 percent. 



57 

Judicial expenditures 
claimed 26.5 percent of 
county government budgets- 
the highest proportion for 
any government level. 



100 



PERCENT 




MISCELLANEOUS EXPENDITURES 

INDIGENT DEFENSE 

LEGAL SERVICES 

JUDICIAL 

CORRECTIONS 

POLICE PROTECTION 



DISTRIBUTION OF DIRECT 
CRIMINAL JUSTICE EXPENDITURES 
BY FUNCTION 



COUNTY 



MUN I C I PAL 



SOURCE LAW ENFORCEMENT ASSISTANCE ADMINISTRATION AND BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



58 VOTER REGISTRATION & PARTICIPATION 



1974 Congressional 
Election Drew 36% 
Of Those Over 18 

About 52 million persons 
cast ballots in the 1974 
Congressional election, 
the lowest in the last 10 
years, according to official 
estimates from the Clerk 
of the House, United States 
Congress. This represents 
about 36 percent of the 



1974 voting age population 
— 17 percent lower than in 
the non-Presidential elec- 
tion year of 1970 and 35 
percent below the 1972 
Presidential election. 
From 1964 to 1974, the 
population of voting age 
increased 27 percent from 
114.1 million to 144.9 
million. 



Data from the Current 
Population Survey indicate 
that the reported voter 
participation rate has been 
11 to 15 percentage points 
lower for blacks than for 
whites in each election 
since 1964. There is no 
evidence that this differ- 
ence between black and 
white voter participation 
is diminishing, and may 



have actually increased in 
1972 and 1974. 

NOTE: The disparity between 
the results of votes cast issued 
by the Clerk of the House 
and estimates from the 
Current Population Survey 
is due in part to a ten- 
dency among respondents to 
overreport voting partici- 
pation to interviewers. 



MILLIONS OF PERSONS 



100 -- 



40 -- 



20 -- 



PARTICIPATION IN PRESIDENTIAL AND CONGRESSIONAL ELECTIONS 



POPULATION 

OF VOTING 

AGE 



B 



140.1 



144.9 



NUMBER OF 
VOTES CAST 



114.1 



116.6 



120.3 



124.5 








1964 1966 1968 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS. U.S. CONGRESS. CLERK OF THE HOUSE 

PERCENT 



1970 



1972 



1974 



50 -- 



40 -- 



30 -- 



20 -- 



10 -- 



PERCENT OF POPULATION REPORTED VOTING 
70.7 



69.3 




67.8 



69.1 



55.4 



57.0 



41.7 



63.0 



64.5 



TOTAL 
WHITE 
BLACK 



s 



57.6 







54.6 



56.0 






52.1 



44.7 



46.3 



33.8 



1964 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



1966 



1968 



1970 



1972 



1974 



VOTER REGISTRATION & PARTICIPATION 



59 



Regional, Income 
Differences Show Up 
in Voting Patterns 

Despite the unusually low 
level of participation in 
the 1974 election, the 
demographic characteristics 
that have usually been 
associated with registration 
and voting— age, race, 



income, and education- 
remained generally consis- 
tent with previous elections. 
For example, among both 
blacks and whites a lower 
proportion voted in the 
South than in any other 
region. However, in all 
regions except the West, 
blacks were less likely 
than whites to register 
and vote. 



Registration and voting 
are more likely for persons 
with high levels of family 
income. In 1974, about 
four-fifths of persons in 
families with incomes of 
$25,000 or more were regis- 
tered and three-fifths 
voted, while one-half the 
people with a family income 
under $5,000 registered 
and one-third voted. 



REGISTRATION AND VOTING BY RACE AND REGION: 1974 



WHITE BLACK 




PERCENT 
VOTING 

PERCENT 
REGISTERING 
(BUT NOT 
VOTING) 



TOTAL 



NORTHEAST 



NORTH CENTRAL 



SOUTH 



WEST 




40 50 

PERCENT OF TOTAL VOTING AGE POPULATION 



T 

60 



T 

70 



80 



B 



REGISTRATION AND VOTING BY FAMILY INCOME: 1974 



PERCENT 

VOTING 

PERCENT 

REGISTERING UNDER $5,000 

(BUT NOT 

VOTING) 

$5,000 TO 
$9,999 



$10,000 TO 
$14,999 



$15,000 TO 
$19,999 



$20,000 TO 
$24,999 



$25,000 
AND OVER 



























52.2 


71.4 












56.9 












64.7 




















73.6 


















77.6 




I I 1 




1 


1 








1 




1 









10 



20 30 40 50 

PERCENT OF TOTAL VOTING AGE POPULATION 



60 



70 



80 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



60 VOTER REGISTRATION & PARTICIPATION 



Registration Levels 
Tend To Improve With 
Age and Education 

Age and level of education 
are also strongly related 
to the probability of being 
registered to vote. 

Registration rates were 
especially low among young 
persons without a high 
school education. Young 



people are less likely to 
register to vote than 
older people regardless 
of educational level. 



10 20 30 40 50 60 70 



80 



90 



10C 



YEARS OF SCHOOL 
COMPLETED 



B 



0-8 YEARS 

12 YEARS 

16 YEARS OR 
MORE 



AGE 



18 TO 24 



PERCENT REGISTERED TO VOTE BY AGE AND EDUCATION: 1974 



35.2 



u 



63.6 



21.5 



25 TO 34 



35 TO 44 



53.2 



69.1 



40.1 



70.8 



z 



45 TO 54 



55 TO 64 











81.7 



53.5 



77.2 








85.7 



62.3 



79.7 








87.3 



65 AND OVER 



61.7 




856 



10 



20 



30 



40 50 60 
PERCENT 



70 



80 



90 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



VOTER REGISTRATION & PARTICIPATION 



61 



Apathy Tops List of 
Reasons Given for 
Nonregistration 

While the number of persons 
registering and voting in 
1974 was particularly low, 
the reasons for not voting 
were substantially the same 
as in 1972. 

About 51 percent of non- 
registrants gave reasons 
that reflected apathy or 



possibly cynicism regarding 
politics. Another 15 
percent cited reasons 
associated with a recent 
move. 

Barriers to registration 
(including physical dis- 
ability, no transportation, 
etc.) comprised another 8 
percent. 

About 9 percent were not 
citizens, and thus could 
not vote. 



Reported Reasons 
for Not Voting 

Among those who registered 
but did not vote, about 45 
percent were reported as 
staying away from the polls 
for reasons essentially 
beyond their control: ill- 
ness or physical disability, 
inability to take time off 
from work, or away on 
travel. 



Another 32 percent of 
those registered persons 
who did not vote could be 
classed apathetic about 
politics or the particular 
election, having a general 
dislike of politics, no 
preference among the 
candidates, etc. 



10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 

H 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



NOT A CITIZEN 



RECENT MOVE 



OTHER BARRIERS 



NOT INTERESTED 



GENERAL DISLIKE, NO PREFERENCE, ETC. 



MISCELLANEOUS 



NOT REPORTED 



REPORTED REASONS FOR NOT 
REGISTERING TO VOTE: 1974 




25 30 35 40 

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION 



60 



5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 
_| 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



ILLNESS, DISABILITY 



COULD NOT LEAVE WORK 



OUT OF TOWN, AWAY FROM HOME 



NOT INTERESTED 



DISLIKES POLITICS 



1ISCELLANEOUS 



DO NOT KNOW, NOT REPORTED 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 




REPORTED REASONS FOR 
NOT VOTING: 1974 



10 



15 



20 



25 30 35 

PERCENT DISTRIBUTION 



40 



45 



50 



55 



60 



62 TRANSPORTATION TRENDS 



'74 Auto Use Drops; 
Passenger Miles 
For Air, Rail Up 

From 1964 through 1973 
passenger car and taxi 
usage increased by 50 per- 
cent, while air passenger 
traffic increased almost 
three-fold. From 1973 to 
1974, the growth rate of 
air passenger-miles slowed 
considerably and passenger 



car and taxi volume actually 
declined. 

Class I rail passenger 
traffic declined about 50 
percent between 1964 and 
1 972. Passenger traffic on 
Amtrak, established in May 
1971, more than doubled over 
the first 4 years to total 
four-fifths the volume of 
all other Class I rail 
passenger-miles. Not includ- 
ing Amtrak, Class I rail 



passenger-miles declined 
through 1973 and then in- 
creased slightly. 



350 



300 



250 



200 



150 



INDEX 1964=100 




100 



S AIR CARRIER CERTIFIED 




1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 



1972 



1973 



PASSENGER MILES 



1964 



1974 



1974 



Billion miles 
Air Carrier, Certified Domestic 

Operations 45.0 133.7 

General Aviation, Intercity 3.7 11.0 

Highway-Passenger Car and Taxi 1.490.7 2.190.2 

Highway-Intercity Bus 23.3 27.6 

Class I Rail (Including Amtrak 1 ), Total 18.2 10.1 

Commutation 4.2 4.5 

Other Than Commutation 14.0 5.5 

1 Amtrak established May 1, 1971 



Index 
(1964 =100) 

297.1 
297.3 
146.9 
118.5 

55.5 
107.1 

39.3 



SOURCE .NSPORTATION 



Section III 



economy 



63 



Gross National Product 

Gross National Product 64 

Inflation Rate 64 

GNP Components 64 

Quarter-to-Quarter Change 
•in Gross National Prod- 
xt65 

2uarter-to-Quarter Change 
n Final Sales 65 

3uarter-to-Quarter Change 
.n Inventory Investment 65 

Corporate Profits 

Corporate Profits 66 

Components of Corporate 
"'rofits 66 

Jusiness Conditions 
ndicators 

Composite Index of Leading 
ndicators 67 

Composite Index of Coin- 
ident Indicators 67 

jloney Balance 67 

ayoff Rate in Manu- 
icturing 67 



ndustrial Production 

oreign Industrial Produc- 
on68 

idustrial Production 
idex 69 

<dustry Groupings 69 

ajor Market Groupings 69 






Manufacturing— Trade 
Sales & Inventories 

Manufacturing and Trade 
Sales 70 

Manufacturing and Trade 
Inventories 70 

Inventory/Sales Ratios 70 



Advance Retail Sales- 
May 

Retail Sales— May Advance 
Estimates 71 

Selected Durable Goods 71 

Selected Nondurable 
Goods 71 



Housing Starts 
& Permits 

New Private Housing Units 
Started 72 

New Private Housing Units 
Authorized 72 

Housing Starts by 
Region 72 

Housing Authorization 
by Region 72 

New Home Sales 

New One-Family 
Homes 73 

Median Sales Price 73 

Value of New 
Construction 

Value of New Construction 
Work Done 74 

Private Residential 
Construction 74 

Private Nonresidential 
Construction 74 



Consumer Price Index 

Consumer Prices: Interna- 
tional Comparisons 75 

Consumer Price Index, 
Total 76 

Commodity and Service 
Groups 76 

Expenditure Class: Food 76 

Expenditure Class: 
Housing 77 

Expenditure Class: Health 
and Recreation 77 

Expenditure Class: 
Transportation 11 

Expenditure Class: Apparel 
and Upkeep 11 

Wholesale Price Index 

Wholesale Price Index, All 
Commodities Total 78 

Wholesale Price Percent 
Change 78 

Farm Products 78 

Processed Foods and 
Feeds 78 

Industrial Commodities 78 

Agricultural Prices 

Agricultural Prices 79 

Ratio of Prices Received 
to Prices Paid 79 

Selected Prices Received 79 

Selected Prices Paid 79 

Productivity & Costs 

Productivity and Costs, 
Total Private Economy 80 

Productivity and Costs, 
Manufacturing 80 

Output and Hours Worked, 
Total Private Economy 80 




Exports & Imports 



Merchandise Trade 
Balance 81 

Exports 81 

Imports 81 

Federal Government 
Receipts & 
Expenditures 

Federal Government 
Expenditures 82 

Federal Government 
Receipts 82 

Federal Government 
Deficit 82 

Money Supply 
Measures 

Money Supply Measures 83 
M1 Percent Change 83 
M2 Percent Change 83 
M3 Percent Change 83 
M5 Percent Change 83 

Consumer Installment 
Credit 

Consumer Installment 
Credit 84 

Type of Consumer Install- 
ment Credit 84 

Holder of Consumer Install- 
ment Credit 84 



64 GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT 



Real GNP Grows at 
8.5% Rate 

In the first quarter of 
1976, Gross National 
Product— the market value 
of the Nation's total out- 
put of goods and services- 
increased $46.3 billion or 
1 2.3 percent compared with 
a gain of $44.4 billion in 
the previous quarter. 

Real output (GNP adjusted 



for price changes) advanced 
8.5 percent, to a new high 
of $1,241.2 billion, slightly 
above the previous peak of 
$1,240.9 billion in the 
fourth quarter of 1973. 

Prices, as measured by 
the GNP chain price index— 
the most comprehensive price 
index available— rose at a 
3.9-percent rate, the lowest 
inflation rate since the 
third quarter of 1972. 



Personal Consumption 
Spending Remains Strong; 
Investment Increases 

In constant 1972 dollars, 
personal consumption ex- 
penditures, which comprise 
nearly two-thirds of real 
GNP, rose $15.1 billion to 
a new high of $794.5 billion. 

Government purchases 
were unchanged at $261.7 
billion. 



Gross private domestic 
investment increased $16."/ 
billion. Investment in 
inventories increased sharp 
ly after holding steady in 
the fourth quarter. Private 
fixed investment rose at a 
12.3-percent rate. 

Net exports of goods an 
services fell $7 billion to 
$16.8 billion, the lowest 
level since the third 
quarter of 1974. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



BILLIONS OF 1972 DOLLARS 



1 . 000 - 1 — ■ — » 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



PERCENT CHANGE , ANNUAL RATES 






INFLATIC 


N RATE 






















■ 


■ 






t 


1. 


,1 


1 


1 


I 






I L » 1 ,M L L 





1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 





1st 


4th 


Is 




QTR. 


QTR. 


QTR 


GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT 


1975 


1975 


197< 




Bil 


ions of Dollars 


Current Dollars 


1433.6 


1,572.9 


1,619.: 


Constant 1972 Dollars 


1,158.6 


1,216.2 


1,241.: 


Personal Consumption 








Expenditures 


752.3 


779.4 


794.! 


Government Purchases of Goods 








and Services 


255.1 


261.6 


261. 


Gross Private Domestic Investment 


129.7 


151.4 


168. 


Net Exports of Goods and Services 


21.5 


23.8 


16,' 




Percent Change, Annual Rate 


Inflation Rate (Chain Price Index) 


8.2 


6.9 


3.! 



GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT 



65 



Final Sales Increase 
Moderately; Inventory 
Investment Up Sharply 

The $25 billion increase 
in real GNP in the first 
quarter was the second 
largest in the past 3 
years. 

About half of the growth, 
$12.3 billion, came from 
increased investment in 
inventories. 



Real final sales— the 
portion of GNP sold to 
ultimate users— continued 
to advance at a moderate 
rate, increasing $12.7 
billion, or 4.2 percent, 
compared with a 5.2-percent 
increase in the last quarter 
of 1975. 



BILLIONS OF 1972 DOLLARS 




QUARTER-TO-QUARTER 

CHANGE IN GROSS 

NATIONAL PRODUCT 



-20- 



-40 



40 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



20- 



-20- 



-40 




D 




T 



QUARTER-TO-QUARTER 

CHANGE IN FINAL 

SALES 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



40 



20- 



-20- 



-40 




:P 




QUARTER-TO-QUARTER 

CHANGE IN INVENTORY 

INVESTMENT 



1971 1972 

SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



66 CORPORATE PROFITS 



Profits from Current 
Production Rise to New 
High of $121.8 Billion 

In the first quarter of 
1976, book profits before 
taxes rose $8.4 billion to 
a seasonally adjusted annual 
rate of $140.8 billion 
(preliminary estimate). 
This marks the fourth 
straight increase bringing 
before-tax profits only 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS. 
ANNUAL RATES 



4 percent below the 1974 
high of $146.7 billion. 

Following a slight 
fourth quarter decline, 
profits from current pro- 
duction—which exclude 
inventory profits— climbed 
$9.1 billion to a new high 
of $121.8 billion. This is 
54 percent above a year ago. 

After-tax profits rose 
$4.4 billion to $84.3 billion 
in the first quarter. 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OP ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



Components of 
Corporate Profits 

Corporate profits tax lia- 
bility amounted to $56.5 
billion, a 7.6-percent 
increase from the last 
quarter of 1975. This 
represents approximately 
40 percent of before-tax 
profits. 

After declining slightly 
in the previous quarter, 



dividend payments increasec 
0.6 percent to $33.3 billion. 

First quarter undistri- 
buted (retained) profits 
rose 9 percent, or $4.2 
billion. Undistributed 
profits were valued at 
$51 billion, an increase 
of 85 percent from the 
year-ago low of $27.5 
billion. 





BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 
ANNUAL RATES 


• 










COMPONE 


ENTSOFCO 


RPORATE Pf 


WFITS 




















/ u - 






















/ 


TAX LIABILI 1 Y 


DU J 




























Jl) 1 


























4-U - 






/ UNDISTRIBUTED 






in J 






' PROFITS 














\ 












DIVIDENDS 






/-\j 




























IU " 














n 






■ i i 




i i i 





197 1 



197 2. 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



CORPORATE PROFITS 



BOOK PROFITS BEFORE TAX 

Profits From Current Production 

(Excluding Inventory Profits) 

PROFITS AFTERTAX 
Dividends 
Undistributed Profits 

TAX LIABILITY 



1st 


4th 


1st 


QTR. 


QTR. 


QTR. 


1975 


1975 


1976 


Bill 


ons of Do 


liars 


97.1 


132.4 


140.8 


78.9 


112.7 


121.8 


59.6 


79.9 


84.3 


32.1 


33.1 


33.3 


27.5 


46.8 


51.0 



37.5 



52.5 



56.5 



BUSINESS CONDITIONS INDICATORS 



67 



Index of Leading 
Indicators Rises for 
6th Straight Month 

On the basis of preliminary 
data, the Composite Index 
of Leading Indicators (an 
indication of future busi- 
ness activity) rose 1.1 
percent in April and now 
stands at 107.8. With more 
complete data available, 
the March index, which had 



originally shown a decline 
was revised to 106.6 or 
0.9 percent above February. 

In April, six often 
available indicators in- 
creased from March while 
four declined. An increase 
in the money balance (1967 
dollars) contributed most 
to the increase. A deteri- 
oration in the layoff rate 
had the largest negative 
impact on the index. 



The composite index of 
coincident indicators, a 
measure of current economic 
activity, rose 1.6 percent 
in April to 169.5. The 
April rise is the 13th con- 
secutive monthly increase. 

The index includes 
comprehensive series on 
production, employment, real 
income, and real sales 
which represent measures of 
aggregate economic activity. 



I35 



INDEX, 1967=100 



COMPOSITE INDEX OF 
LEADING INDICATORS 




85 - 1 -" 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 




190 



180 



170 



160 



150 



140 



130 



120 



1 10 



INDEX, 1967=100 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



PERCENT 



3 
2 

1 



i n i 

LAYOFF RATE IN MANUFACTURING 



' ' "" 




■■'''■■■■''■■■■■'■■■■■'■'' 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



BUSINESS CONDITIONS 
INDICATORS 



APRIL 
1975 



COMPOSITE INDEX OF LEADING 

INDICATORS (1967=100) 94.6 

Money Balance (Billions of 1967 Dollars) 179.5 

Layoff Rate in Manufacturing (Percent) 2.6% 

COMPOSITE INDEX OF COINCIDENT 

INDICATORS (1967=100) 147.5 



MARCH 
1976 



106.6 
177.8 

1.2% 



166.8 



APRIL 
1976 



107.8 
179.4 
1 .3% 



169.5 



68 INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

Industrialized Nations 
Reported Recovery in 
Industrial Output 

Statistics from selected 
nations around the world 
indicate that recovery in 
industrial production is 
underway following a general 
worldwide economic slump. 
Here is a roundup: 

JAPAN: Industrial pro- 
duction rose sharply for 



the fourth month, advancing 
a further 2.8 percent in 
March. Since the 3-year low 
last March, output has in- 
creased 15.5 percent. 

WEST GERMANY: Reversing 
February's gain, industrial 
output fell 3.3 percent in 
March. Output has expanded 
1 1.3 percent since the 
July 1975 low, and is 
only 5.1 percent below the 
December 1973 high. 



FRANCE: Production ad- 
vanced 2 percent in March 
to 151, the highest level 
since October 1974. 

CANADA: Industrial pro- 
duction rose 0.7 percent to 
145 in March. Since the 
low of last October, pro- 
duction has increased 5.1 
percent, recovering over 
half the decline from the 
March 1974 high of 150. 



INDEX, 1967-100 



210 



200 



190 



180 



170 



160 



150 



140 



130 



120 



1 10 



) QQ .JL-i i.i.i.itii»iiiil.........l.. ...... 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE ; FEDERAL RESERVE BOARD AND SELECTED FOREIGN COUNTRY STATISTICAL OFFICES 




UNITED KINGDOM: Indi 
trial output was unchanged 
in March at 114. This is 
only 2.7 percent above the 
December low of 111. 

UNITED STATES: Produ< 
tion continued to rise in 
May for a total gain of 
12.1 percent from the 
April 1975 low. 



INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION INDEX 



INTERNATIONAL 


(INDEX, 


COMPARISONS 


1967=100) 


JAPAN 




March 1975 


161.0 


Feb. 1976 


181.0 


March 1976 


186.0 


WEST GERMANY 




March 1975 


145.0 


Feb. 1976 


153.0 


March 1 976 


148.0 


FRANCE 




March 1975 


139.0 


Feb. 1976 


148.0 


March 1976 


151.0 


CANADA 




March 1975 


139.0 


Feb. 1976 


144.0 


March 1976 


145.0 


UNITED KINGDOM 




March 1975 


116.0 


Feb. 1976 


114.0 


March 1976 


114.0 


UNITED STATES 




March 1975 


110.1 


Feb. 1976 


122.3 


March 1976 


123.2 



INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 



69 



Industrial Production 
Continues Year-Long 
Advance in May 

The industrial production 
index continued its advance 
in May. Reflecting gener- 
ally widespread gains, the 
total index increased an 
estimated 0.7 percent to 
123.2. This follows a 0.5- 
percent increase in April 
and an average monthly 



gain of 0.9 percent in the 
first quarter of 1976. The 
increases in April and May 
were held down somewhat by 
the strike in the rubber 
industry. The May index is 
3.4 percent below the Novem- 
ber 1973 high. 

Manufacturing production 
increased 0.7 percent, about 
the same as reported in 
April. The May index of 
122.0 is 13.3 percent above 



the March 1975 low. Mining 
rose 1 percent to 107.9 
recovered somewhat from the 
1.7-percent decline posted 
in April. Utilities reached 
another new high in May, 
rising a further 0.4 percent 
to 162.7. 

Products rose more than 
in April, reflecting a 
larger gain in final pro- 
ducts. The final products 
index increased a further 



1 percent to 122.6, almost 
matching the November 1973 
peak. Intermediate products 
declined 0.5 percent, the 
first decrease since last 
May. Materials rose 0.9 
percent, compared to 0.4 
percent in April. Materials 
output has advanced 18 per- 
cent since the May 1975 low, 
but remains almost 6 percent 
below the November 1973 
peak. 





INDEX, 1967=100 












INDUSTRIE 


,L PRODUC1 


ION INDEX 






























































^ 










1 


v/" 
















































170 



160 



150 



140 



130 



INDEX, 1967=100 




120 



1 10 



100 



80 -H 



197 1 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



INDEX, 1967=100 




> Q 1 i i i i i i i i i i i I i i i i t i ■ i i t i I tiii 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BOARD OF GOVERNORSOF THE FEDERAL RESERVE 





MAY 


APRIL 


MAY 


INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 


1975 


1976 


1976 






(Index, 1967=100) 




TOTAL 


110.1 


122.3 


123.2 


Industry 








UTILITIES 


152.3 


162.1 


162.7 


MANUFACTURING 


108.2 


121.1 


122.0 


MINING 


105.9 


106.8 


107.9 


Major Market Groupings 








PRODUCTS, TOTAL 


113.4 


122.0 


122.8 


Final Products 


113.7 


121.4 


122.6 


Intermediate Products 


112.4 


124.1 


123.5 


MATERIALS 


104.9 


122.7 


123.8 



70 MANUFACTURING-TRADE SALES & INVENTORIES 



Sales, Inventories 
Continue '76 Advance 

Continuing a 5-month 
advance, total manufac- 
turing and trade sales 
rose S1. 4 billion (0.7 
percent) in April. More 
than three-fourths of the 
April gain was accounted 
for by a $1.1 billion rise 
in manufacturing sales. 



Sales for the first 4 
months of 1976 were valued 
at $733.7 billion, about 
13 percent above the com- 
parable 1975 period. 

Total manufacturing and 
trade inventories increased 
$894 million, or 0.3 percent 
in April, slightly more than 
half the $1.66 billion gain 
reported in March. Inven- 
tories rose $69 million in 
manufacturing, $563 million 



in retail trade, and $262 
million in wholesale trade. 

Inventories have grown 
for four consecutive 
months, gaining a total 
of 2.2 percent since last 
December. 

The total stock-to-sales 
ratio was unchanged at 1.45. 
The manufacturing ratio con- 
tinued to decline as in- 
creases in sales continued 



to outpace inventory accum- 
ulation. The retail ratio 
however, rose for the first 
time since January, reflect- 
ing a halt in sales gains. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



1 1 I 

MANUFACTURING AND TRADE SALES 



TOTAL, MANUFACTURING 
AND TRADE 




300 



250 



200 



150 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




100 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 



197 1 



1972 



1973 



1974 



APRIL 
MANUFACTURING & TRADE SALES 1975 



1975 



MARCH 
1976 



1976 



APRIL 
1976 







Billions of Dollars 




MANUFACTURING & TRADE SALES, 








TOTAL 


162.7 


185.5 


186.8 


Manufacturing 


80.7 


93.0 


94.1 


Retail Trade 


46.8 


53.3 


53.3 


Wholesale Trade 


35.2 


39.1 


39.4 


MANUFACTURING & TRADE 








INVENTORIES. TOTAL 


267.0 


269.6 


270.5 


Manufacturing 


150.2 


148.2 


148.2 


Retail Trade 


71.5 


75.1 


75.7 


Wholesale Trade 


45.3 


46.4 


46.7 


INVENTORIES TO SALES RATIOS 




Ratio 





MANUFACTURING & TRADE, TOTAL 1.64 

Manufacturing 1.86 

Retail Trade 1.53 

Wholesale Trade 1.29 



1.45 
1.59 
1.41 
1.19 



1.45 
1.57 
1.42 
1.18 



ADVANCE RETAIL SALES-MAY 



May Retail Sales 
Fall $0.7 Billion 

Advance data for May indi- 
cate that total retail sales 
declined $656 million (1 .2 
percent) in May, the first 
measurable decline in 4 
months. May sales were 
valued at $52.6 billion, a 
9.2 percent increase from 
a year earlier. 



Halting a 3-month advance, 
sales of durable goods fell 
$530 million (3.0 percent) 
to $17.3 billion. Although 
May sales were the lowest 
since January, they were 18 
percent above a year ago. 

Sales of automotive 
dealers fell $414 million, 
accounting for about three- 
fourths of the durable goods 
decline. Despite the May 
drop, auto sales are more 



than 20 percent above last 
year. Sales of building 
materials, hardware, and 
farm equipment dealers were 
down $108 million (3.3 per- 
cent) from the April high 
of $3.25 billion. 

Nondurable sales, which 
fell $515 million in April, 
declined a further $126 
million in May, and were 1 .8 
percent below the March 
high. At $35.3 billion. 



71 

nondurable goods sales were 
5.5 percent above May a 
year ago. 

The decline in nondurable 
sales was generally wide- 
spread. Sales of eating 
and drinking places decreased 
$50 million; general merchan- 
dise stores declined $55 
million. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



I I 

RETAIL SALES OF SELECTED DURABLE GOODS 



AUTOMOTIVE DEALERS 

V 




BUILDING MATERIALS, HARDWARE, ETC. 



i 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 L 



1974 



1975 



1976 





MAY 


APRIL 


MAY 


RETAIL SALES-MAY ADVANCE 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




RETAIL SALES, TOTAL 


48.17 


53.30 


52.64 


Sales Excluding Automotive 








Dealers Group, Total 


39.91 


42.74 


42.49 


Durable Goods 


14.70 


17.87 


17.34 


Automotive Dealers, Total 


8.26 


10.56 


10.15 


Building Materials, Hardware, 








Farm Equipment Dealers, Total 


2.84 


3.25 


3.14 


Nondurable Goods 


33.47 


35.43 


35.30 


General Merchandise Group, Total 


7.98 


8.30 


8.24 


Eating and Drinking Places 


3.94 


4.30 


4.25 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




1974 



1975 



1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



72 HOUSING STARTS & PERMITS 



Housing Starts Rise 
2.4% in May After 
2-Month Drop 

Privately-owned housing 
units were started in May 
at a seasonally adjusted 
annual rate of 1,415,000, 
a 2.4-percent increase 
from the revised April 
rate. Units in multifamily 
structures, up 40,000 units, 
were responsible for the 



overall increase. Starts 
of single-family units have 
declined 238,000 since 
February's 3-year peak 
rate of 1,295,000 starts. 
Regionally, the West 
showed the largest increase, 
9.6 percent (31,000 units), 
followed closely by the 
North Central which in- 
creased 26,000 units. The 
Northeast and South declined 
moderately. 



Housing Permits Rise 
To Highest Level 
In 2 Years 

Privately-owned housing 
construction was authorized 
in May at a seasonally ad- 
justed annual rate of 
1,158,000 units in the 
14,000 permit-issuing 
places. This is 5.8 per- 
cent above the revised 
April rate of 1,095,000. 



May's increase was paced 
by a 55,000 increase in 
multifamily units. Over 
the past year, total author- 
izations have increased by 
246,000 units. 

All regions increased, 
with the South (up 26,000 
units) and the North Central 
(up 19,000 units) responsi- 
ble for 60 percent of the 
May rise. 



3,000 



2.500 



2,000 



1,500 



1,000 



500 



THOUSANDS OF UNITS 



3,000 



2,500 



2,000 



1,500 



1,000 



500 



■ ■ I ' i i i i ■ I i i i i i i i i i i i I i i i i i I Q 



THOUSANDS OF UNITS 




1 1 1 

NEW PRIVATE HOUSING UNITS AUTHORIZED 
(14,000 Permit-Issuing Places) 




















/V 










^ 


V 


V 








~£_ 










































//"> 


r* 








\ 


t/> 












mm /siNfil F 


-FAMILY 

TS 






Mill TIFAMII Y \to*# 


UN 




1 1 1 1 1 1 


UNITS 
■ ■ ■ i i i 1 1 i i i i i i 1 1 1 1 


■ i i i i i ■ i i i i 





1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



1971 



1972 



1973 1974 1975 1976 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



197 1 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



HOUSING STARTS 



TOTAL UNITS STARTED 
Units in Multifamily Structures 
Single-Family Units 

By Region 
West 
North Central 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



MAY 
1975 



APRIL 
1976 



MAY 
1976 



Thousands of Units 

1.085 1.381 1,415 

232 318 358 

853 1 ,063 1 ,057 



HOUSING AUTHORIZATIONS 



TOTAL UNITS AUTHORIZED 
Units in Multifamily Structures 
Single-Family Units 









By Region 


267 


322 


353 


South 


262 


409 


435 


North Central 



MAY 
1975 



APRIL 
1976 



274 
229 



355 
276 



MAY 
1976 



Thousands of Units 

912 1,095 1,158 

254 282 337 

658 813 821 



381 
295 



NEW HOME SALES 



73 



New Home Sales Rise 
5% in April 

The number of new one- 
family homes sold in April 
rose 5 percent to an annual 
rate of 613,000 units, about 
9 percent below February's 
3-year peak rate of 677,000 
homes. 

The inventory of new 
one-family homes available 
for sale continued to 



expand in April— up 1 per- 
cent to 393,000 units-the 
highest level since March 
1975. 



Median Price of 
New Homes Rises to 
Record High 

The median sales price for 
all new one-family homes 
sold during April reached 
another new high of $44,100. 

This is the seventh time 
in the last 8 months that 
the median price has 
eclipsed the previous 
high. The median sales 



price of $44,100 means that 
about half of all homes 
sold were priced above this 
level and half were sold at 
prices below this level 



THOUSANDS OF UNITS 




50 



40 



30 



20 



10 



THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS 



I I 

MEDIAN SALES PRICE 














































t±**^ 










s*~ 


/ 
















































1 ■ i t 1 1 1 1 1 i 1 




1 . 1 1 1 1 . 1 1 . 1 


1 ' ' 


1 ■ 1 1 ■ 1 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SALES OF NEW ONE-FAMILY 


APRIL 


MARCH 


APRIL 


HOMES 


1975 


1976 


1976 


Homes Sold During Month 




Number 




Annual Rate, Total 


556,000 


583,000 


613,000 


Homes for Sale at End of Month 








Monthly rate, Total 


388,000 


389,000 

Dollars 


393,000 


Median Sales Price 


39,200 


43,600 


44,100 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



74 VALUE OF NEW CONSTRUCTION 



New Construction 
Activity Down; Private 
Construction Drops 

In April, the value of new 
construction work done (in 
current dollars) declined 
0.9 percent to an annual 
rate of $138.3 billion. 

In real terms (expressed 
in constant 1967 dollars) 
new construction declined 
1.1 percent to $71 billion 



after a 3.6-percent rise in 
March. The dip in construc- 
tion activity was due to a 
1 .9-percent drop in private 
construction. Public con- 
struction activity rose 
slightly further to $18.8 
billion. 



Industrial and 
Commercial Construction 
Declines Sharply 

The April decline reflected 
sharply reduced construction 
activity on nonresidential 
buildings; new construction 
work decreased 10.3 percent 
to $12.2 billion (constant 
1967 dollars). This is 
the sharpest monthly decline 
since March 1975 and the 



lowest level of activity 
since August 1960. Construc- 
tion of commerical buildings 
dropped 9 percent while in- 
dustrial construction fell 
10.5 percent from March. 
Private residential con- 
struction continued to in- 
crease. New construction 
on single-family and multi- 
family buildings rose 1.6 
and 2.9 percent, respectively. 



BILLIONS OF 1967 DOLLARS 
150 -i 1 r 



140 



130 



120 



1 10 



100 




50 



BILLIONS OF 1967 DOLLARS 



20 



10 



30 



20 



1 1 1 

PRIVATE RESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION 




SINGLE-FAMILY 
STRUCTURES 

L 



MULTIFAMILY 
STRUCTURES 



197 1 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



BILLIONSOF 1967 DOLLARS 



PRIVATE NONRESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTION 



TOTAL 

COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS 





1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 





APRIL 


MARCH 


APRIL 


VALUE OF NEW CONSTRUCTION 


1975 


1976 


1976 






Billions of Dollars 




CURRENT DOLLARS, TOTAL 


121.0 


139.5 


138.3 


CONSTANT 1967 DOLLARS. TOTAL 


64.5 


71.8 


71.0 


Private Construction 


46.2 


53.3 


52.3 


Residential Buildings 


21.8 


28.5 


28.9 


Single-Family Structures 


11.9 


18.6 


18.9 


Multifamily Structures 


3.6 


3.5 


3.6 


Nonresidential Buildings 


13.2 


13.6 


12.2 


Commercial 


6.5 


6.7 


6.1 


Industrial 


3.8 


3.8 


3.4 


Public Construction 


18.3 


18.6 


18.8 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX: 



75 



UNITED KINGDOM: After 
a steep 2.6-percent rise 
in January, the largest 
since last May, the aggre- 
gate index of consumer 
prices was unchanged in 
February. This follows a 
17-month advance totaling 
36.4 percent. 

JAPAN: Consumer prices 
rose 0.9 percent in Febru- 
ary, about half the 1 .9- 
percent rise reported in 



INDEX, 1967=100 

NOT SEASONALLY ADJUSTED 



January. March data indi- 
cate a further slowing as 
prices rose only 0.5 percent 
to 218. 

FRANCE: A 1-percent in- 
crease was reported in 
January, the latest month 
for which data are avail- 
able. In 1975, the index 
increased 1 1 percent, com- 
pared to a 14-percent gain 
in 1974. 



CANADA: Prices were 
unchanged in February, but 
rose a further 0.6 percent 
in March. The Canadian CPI, 
historically slightly below 
the U.S. level, rose above 
the U.S. last October. 

UNITED STATES: In Feb- 
ruary, consumer prices rose 
only 0.2 percent. Further 
increases of 0.2 percent 
and 0.4 percent were re- 
ported for March and April. 



WEST GERMANY: 

The rise in consumer 
prices has been relatively 
milder than in other in- 
dustrial nations. In 1975, 
a 6-percent rise was re- 
ported, compared with 
increases of about 7 per- 
cent in 1973 and 1974. 




UNITED KINGDOM 



JAPAN 



FRANCE 



CANADA 
UNITED STATES 



WEST GERMANY 



I i i i i i i 



1971 1972 

SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



76 CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 



Food Prices Lead 0.4% 
Rise in April CPI 

The Consumer Price Index— 
which measures the average 
change in prices of goods 
and services usually bought 
by urban wage earners and 
clerical workers— rose 0.4 
percent in April, compared 
with a 0.2-percent increase 
in March. Since April 1975, 
the CPI has advanced 6.1 



percent, the smallest over- 
the-year gain since July 
1973. 

Food prices, which rose 
for the first time this 
year, were chiefly respon- 
sible for the larger April 
gain while a slower rise in 
prices of services limited 
the overall increase. 

The commodities index 
rose 0.4 percent, the first 
increase in 3 months. 



Commodities excluding food 
rose 0.3 percent, main- 
taining the moderate pace 
exhibited since last 
September. 

The services index rose 
0.5 percent, less than in 
recent months, reflecting 
smaller increases in many 
types of services. 



CPI Expenditure Class: 
Food 

The food index rose 0.6 
percent in April following 
a 3-month decline totaling 
2 percent. A sharp 2.3- 
percent increase in prices 
for fruits and vegetables 
was a major factor. 



INDEX, 1967=100 




CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 



ALL ITEMS, TOTAL 1 

Percent Change From Year Ago 
All Commodities, Total 

Commodities Less Food 
Services 

BY EXPENDITURE CLASS 
Food, Total 

Fruits and Vegetables 
Housing, Total" 

Gas and Electricity 
Health and Recreation, Total* 

Medical Care* 
Transportation 

Gasoline and Motor Oil 

Used Cars 
Apparel and Upkeep, Total 

Apparel Commodities 

'Not seasonally adjusted 



APRIL 


MARCH 


APRIL 


1975 


1976 


1976 




Index. 1967= 


100 


158.6 


167.5 


168.2 


10.2 


6.2 


6.1 


155.6 


162.4 


163.1 


147.4 


153.9 


154.4 


164.3 


177.2 


178.0 


171.0 


177.9 


178.9 


166.4 


173.4 


177.4 


164.7 


174.5 


174.9 


164.8 


182.4 


182.8 


152.1 


160.6 


161.4 


165.8 


180.6 


181.6 


146.6 


160.8 


161.8 


160.9 


170.6 


169.0 


143.3 


159.9 


165.4 


141.4 


145.4 


145.8 


140.4 


143.6 


143.9 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



INDEX, 1967=100 




200 



180 



160 



140 



120 



100 



INDEX, 1967=100 





EXPEIMDI 


FURE CLASS 


.: FOOD 


























FRUIT 
VEGET 


S AND 
ABLES~~^- 




























j 


J 


FOOD.TC 


DTAL 








Jvl 














If 
















































l l l l l 1 1 1 l_l_l_ 



971 1972 1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 
Housing 

Reflecting a slower rise 
in gas and electricity 
rates, housing costs rose 
0.2 percent, half the rise 
reported in March. Gas 
and electricity rates rose 
only 0.2 percent in April, 
following increases of 1.1 
percent in both February 
and March. 



77 



Health and Recreation 

The health and recreation 
index rose 0.5 percent com- 
pared to a 0.6-percent rise 
in March. The medical care 
index rose 0.6 percent fol- 
lowing gains of 1 .2 percent 
and 1.0 percent in February 
and March. The slower rise 
refelcts smaller increases 
in physicians' and dentists' 
fees and hospital care. 



Transportation 

Transportation costs rose 
more in April— 0.6 percent 
—compared with 0.4 percent 
in March. Used car prices, 
which have accelerated in 
the last 3 months, rose a 
further 3.4 percent. Gaso- 
line and motor oil declined 
0.9 percent, not as sharply 
as in the previous 3 months. 



Apparel and Upkeep 



Apparel and upkeep increased 
0.3 percent, the same as in 
March. The cost of apparel 
commodities, reflecting 
increases in footwear and 
women's and girls' apparel, 
rose 0.2 percent after 
remaining unchanged in 
March. 



INDEX, 1967=100 





EXPENDI" 


I 

"URE CLASS 


1 
: HOUSING 






























GAS AND 
ELECTRIC 




^ 




TY J , 












/? H 


|\ 

3USING, 












T 


3TAL 






























































1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


■ ■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 ■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


• • • 



200 



180 



160 



140 



120 



100 



INDEX, 1967=100 




1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



INDEX, 1967=100 

D 




200 



180 



160 



140 



120 



100 



INDEX, 1967=100 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



197 1 



1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



78 WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX 



Slower Rise in May 
Wholesale Prices 

The wholesale price index 
for all commodities rose a 
seasonally-adjusted 0.3 
percent in May. This com- 
pares to an 0.8-percent 
increase in April and almost 
no change over the October 
to March period. 

In the latest 3-month 
period, March to May, 



wholesale prices have in- 
creased at an annual rate 
of 5.5 percent. This was 
the largest rise since the 
3 months ended last 
December. 

The unadjusted May index 
stood at 181 .8, an increase 
of 5 percent since May 1975. 

By Commodity Classification 
(Seasonally adjusted changes), 
the farm products index 



increased 0.6 percent in May 
compared to a 4.2-percent 
rise in April. Reflected 
in the slower rise was an 
8.3-percent drop in prices 
for fresh and dried fruits 
and vegetables. Processed 
foods and feeds rose 1.3 
percent following a 1 .9 
percent gain in April. 
Meats, poultry, and fish 
declined 0.4 percent, re- 
flecting a drop in beef and 



veal prices. Manufactured 
animal feeds rose 6.7 per- 
cent to a 17-month high. 

The industrial commoditie 
index edged up 0.1 percent 
continuing the 1976 pattern 
of smaller gains. The larg- 
est increase was posted in 
prices of hides, skins, and 
leather products (3.4 per- 
cent). Lumber and wood 
products fell 1.1 percent. 



200 
180 
160 
140 
120 
100 

60 

40 

20 



-20 

-40 



INDEX, 1967-100 



INDEX, 1967-100 



WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX 
ALL COMMODITIES, TOTAL* 




* Not Seasonally Adjusted 
■ ' ■ * * ■ ' ' ' ' ' * ' ' 



i 






1 1 1 1 



971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



PERCENT CHANGE , 3-MONTH SPAN 



ALL COMMODITIES, TOTAL 



1 ' ■ i . . i \ . i ■ i ■ 1 1 1 1 ■ i * 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX 



MAY 
1975 



APRIL 
1976 



MAY 
1976 



ALL COMMODITIES, TOTAL* 

(Index, 1967=100) 
Percent Change Over 3-Month Span, 
Seasonally Adjusted Annual Rate 

Farm Products 

Fresh and Dried Fruits 
and Vegetables 

Processed Foods and Feeds 
Meats, Poultry, and Fish 
Manufactured Animal Feeds 

Industrial Commodities 

Lumber and Wood Products 
Hides, Skins, and Leather Products 

'Not Seasonally Adjusted 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



173.2 

4.5 

186.0 

172.3 
181.0 
191.9 
168.7 
169.5 
176.0 
147.3 



181.3 

2.5 

193.8 

183.6 
179.3 
192.3 
174.6 
179.5 
196.7 
163.6 



181.8 

5.5 

194.9 

168.4 
181.6 
191.4 
186.3 
179.6 
194.5 
169.1 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



INDEX, 1967-100 



MEATS, POULTRY, AND FISH - 




MANUFACTURED 
.ANIMAL FEEDS — 



PROCESSED FOODS AND 
FEEDS, TOTAL 



1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 



1971 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



INDEX, 1967-100 




197 1 



AGRICULTURAL PRICES 



79 



Prices Paid to Farmers 
Up 1.6% in May; Farm 
Costs are Unchanged 

During the month ended May 
15, the index of prices 
received by farmers for 
all farm products increased 
3 points (1 .6 percent) to 
192, the highest level 
since last October. 



Prices paid by farmers 
(for commodities and ser- 
vices, interest, taxes and 
farm wage rates) were un- 
changed from the April high 
of 193. 

The ratio of prices 
received to prices paid 
rose to 0.99, highest since 
last December. 



Corn, Cotton Prices 
Higher; Beef Lower 

Feed grains and hay rose 7 
percent to 229; corn in- 
creased 15 cents per bushel 
to $2.61 . The cotton index 
increased 14 percent; upland 
cotton averaged a new high 
of 57.3 cents per lb. Lower 
beef cattle prices dropped 
the meat animals index to 
186. 



Feed Costs Increase; 
Feeder Livestock Dips 

Prices paid for family 
living items were unchanged. 
Production goods declined 
1 point to 196; feed prices 
rose 2 percent to 187, but 
were more than offset by a 
3-percent decline in prices 
paid for feeder livestock. 



INDEX, 1967=100 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 





MAY 15, 


APRIL 15, 


MAY 15, 


AGRICULTURAL PRICES 


1975 




1976 


1976 






Index 


,1967= 


= 100 


PRICES RECEIVED BY FARMERS 


183 




189 


192 


Feed Grains and Hay 


230 




214 


229 


Cotton 


162 




223 


255 


Meat Animals 


176 




188 


186 


PRICES PAID BY FAMERS 


180 




193 


193 


Family Living Items 


164 




174 


174 


Production Items 


183 




197 


196 


Feeder Livestock 


138 




174 


168 


Feed 


185 




183 


187 


Ratio of Prices Received to 










Prices Paid 


1.02 




0.98 


0.99 



300 



280 



260 



240 



220 



200 



180 



160 



140 



120 



100 



80 



240 



220 



200 



INDEX, 1967=100 





1 1 
SELECTED PRICES RECEIVED 












FEED GRAINS AND HAY / 
\ 1 
















1 COTTON 1 
1 i \ 1 






MEAT ANIMALS fl 







































































































• ' 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



INDEX, 1967=100 




197 1 



1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



80 PRODUCTIVITY & COSTS 



Productivity Rises in 
Private Sector to Record 
High Level 

In the first quarter of 
1976, productivity (output 
per worker-hour) in the 
total private economy rose 
at an annual rate of 4.6 
percent. This boosted 
labor productivity to the 
highest level since the 
series began in 1947. The 



increase reflected a 7.9- 
percent gain in output and 
a 3.2-percent rise in hours 
worked. 

Unit labor costs rose 
3.7 percent as the produc- 
tivity increase blunted the 
effects of an 8.5-percent 
rise in compensation per 
worker-hour. 



Productivity Rise in 
Manufacturing Slows 

The rise in manufacturing 
productivity slowed to an 
annual rate of 1.4 percent 
from 5.4 percent in the 
previous quarter. 

Unit labor costs rose 
7.3 percent compared to a 
0.7-percent increase in 
the fourth quarter of 1975. 
The unit labor cost increase 



was the result of an 8.8- 
percent increase in comper 
sation per worker-hour, 
which was only partially 
offset by the 1.4-percent 
productivity increase. 



INDEX, 1967=100 




200 



190 



180 



170 



160 



150 



140 



130 



120 



1 10 



100 



INDEX, 1967=100 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



1971 1972 1973 



1974 1975 1976 



INDEX, 1967=100 




1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS 



PRODUCTIVITY & COSTS 



TOTAL PRIVATE ECONOMY 
Output per Worker-Hour 

Output 

Hours Worked 
Unit Labor Costs 

Compensation per Worker-Hour 

MANUFACTURING 
Output per Worker Hour 
Unit Labor Costs 

Compensation per Worker Hour 



1ST 


4TH 


1ST 


QTR 


QTR 


QTR 


1975 


1975 


1976 


Inde 


<, 1967= 


100 


109.8 


114.2 


115.5 


115.6 


121.8 


124.1 


105.3 


106.6 


107.5 


160.9 


162.6 


164.1 


176.6 


185.7 


189.5 


110.2 


115.2 


115.6 


157.2 


158.0 


160.8 


173.2 


182.0 


185.9 



EXPORTS & IMPORTS 



Exports Rise for Second 
Month; Trade Gap Narrows 

In April, total exports 
rose to the highest level 
since last November while 
imports edged down slightly. 
This resulted in a narrow- 
ing of the trade deficit to 
$202 million. It was the 
fourth foreign trade deficit 
in a row for a total short- 



fall of $1.07 billion in the 
first 4 months of 1976. 

Total exports were valued 
at $9.4 billion, an increase 
of $438 million (5 percent) 
since March. Nonagricul- 
tural exports rose $249 
million to $7.3 billion led 
by increased exports of 
motor vehicles, aircraft, 
and coal. Agricultural 
exports rose $230 million 



to $1 .9 billion. More than 
half of this increase was 
attributable to a $153 
million rise in corn 
exports. 

Total imports, at $9.6 
billion, were little changed 
from the March peak. A 
$600 million rise in petro- 
leum imports was offset by 
a $615 million drop in other 
imports. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



MERCHANDISE TRADE 
BALANCE 




_ 9 ' '*''■■'' ■ ■ > 1 I I i i I ■ I t till 1 I i I i i I . i < ■ I i . I t ■ I I i I i i i \ \ t i t i i i i i i i 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



EXPORTS AND IMPORTS 



MERCHANDISE TRADE BALANCE 

EXPORTS, TOTAL* 

Domestic Nonagricultural Commodities 

Domestic Agricultural Commodities 

IMPORTS, TOTAL* 
Imports Excluding Petroleum 
Petroleum Imports 



*Detail may not add to total 
due to seasonal adjustment 
of individual series. 



APRIL MARCH APRIL 
1975 1976 1976 



Bill 


ions of Dollars 


0.689 


0.651 


-0.202 


8.65 


8.96 


9.39 


6.86 


7.09 


7.34 


1.76 


1.68 


1.91 


7.96 


9.61 


9.60 


5.66 


7.41 


6.80 


2.30 


2.19 


2.80 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 





1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



82 FEDERAL GOVERNMENT RECEIPTS & EXPENDITURES 



Federal Government 
Deficit Declines 
In First Quarter 

The Federal Government's 
deficit (as measured in the 
national income and product 
accounts) declined in the 
first quarter of 1976. The 
S69.1 billion deficit (sea- 
sonally adjusted annual rate) 
was S3 billion less than the 
fourth quarter 1975 deficit. 



Receipts rose SI 0.1 
billion to a rate of $312.2 
billion. A $6.4 billion 
rise in social insurance 
contributions (including 
S2.1 billion from the in- 
crease in the maximum 
earnings subject to the 
Social Security tax and 
$1.8 billion from higher 
employer unemployment con- 
tributions) accounted for 
most of the increase. Other 



increases came from corpor- 
ate profits taxes ($3.6 
billion) and personal tax 
payments (S2.5 billion). 

The annual rate of 
Federal Government expendi- 
tures was $381 .3 billion, 
up $7.1 billion from the 
fourth quarter of 1975. 

A $5.7 billion increase 
in transfer payments to a 
level of $160.2 billion 
accounted for four-fifths 



of the increase. The rise 
in transfer payments was 
partly attributable to 
nearly $2 billion for 
"earned income credits" (a 
payment made primarily to 
low-income wage earners). 

Grants-in-aid to State 
and local governments in- 
creased $1.3 billion. 



400 



360 



320 



280 



240 



200 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




160 



120 



400 



360 



320 



280 



240 



200 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



197 1 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 




160 



120 



197 



1972 



1973 



1974 



1975 



1976 



20 



-20 

-40 

-60 

-80 

-100 

-120 



1 ' > 

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT DEFICI 


r 






H ^g/n 


^H 










h 






















... 














i 



















1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 

SOURCE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 





1st 


4th 


1st 


FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 


QTR. 


QTR. 


QTR. 


RECEIPTS & EXPENDITURES 


1975 


1975 


1976 




Bill 


ons of Dollars 


RECEIPTS, TOTAL 


283.6 


302.1 


312.2 


Personal Tax and Nontax Receipts 


137.6 


135.2 


137.8 


Corporate Profits Tax Accruals 


32.1 


45.0 


48.6 


Indirect Business Tax and Nontax 








Accruals 


22.3 


25.4 


23.0 


Contributions for Social Insurance 


91.7 


96.4 


102.8 


EXPENDITURES. TOTAL 


337.4 


374.2 


381.3 


Purchases of Goods and Services 


119.4 


129.9 


131.1 


Transfer Payments 


139.2 


154.5 


160.2 


Grants-in-Aid to State and Local 








Governments 


50.1 


57.4 


58.7 


Other Expenditures 








(Net Interest Paid and Net Subsidies) 


28.7 


32.3 


31.3 


FEDERAL GOVERNMENT DEFICIT 


53.7 


■72.1 


69.1 



MONEY SUPPLY MEASURES 



83 



Money Supply Growth 
Slows During May 

All selected measures of 
the Nation's money supply 
continued to expand in May, 
but at slower rates than 
reported in April. Here 
is a summary of the various 
ways the money stock is 
measured: 

M1— Currency in circula- 
tion plus private checking 



account deposits— rose $1 .4 
billion in May to $303.1 
billion. This represents 
an increase of 5.6 percent 
at annual rates, a consider- 
ably slower pace than the 
14.9-percent rate posted in 
April. Since May 1975, M1 
has increased 5.4 percent. 

M2— M1 plus time deposits 
at commercial banks except 
large denomination bank 
certificates— rose $5.1 



billion to $697 billion, an 
increase of 8.8 percent at 
annual rates. In April, M2 
rose at a 14.9-percent annu- 
al rate, largest gain since 
last June. 

M3-M2 plus deposits at 
nonbank thrift institutions 
(savings and loan institu- 
tions, credit unions, etc.) 
—increased $9.9 billion 
(10.4 percent at annual 
rates) to $1,151 billion. 



Since last May, M3 has 
advanced 12.3 percent. 

M5— M3 plus large nego- 
tiable certificates of 
deposit— rose $6.5 billion 
to $1,219.1 billion. The 
6.4-percent May rate of 
increase is approximately 
half the April rise and the 
slowest since last August. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



300 



200 



100 



000 



900 



800 



700 



600 



500 



100 



300 



?00 



100 



Q -Li i i i i i i t i i i I i t ■ i i I i i i ■ i i ■ i i i i 1 i ■ i i ■ ■ ■ t i i i 1 i ■ ■ i i i i ■ i i i 1 ■ . ■ i i i i t i ■ i 

1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



PERCENT CHANGE 
ANNUAL RATES 





PERCENT CHANGE 
ANNUAL RATES 



_ 1 Q 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ii 1 1] 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 — 1 Uuuuuuli 



20 

15 

10 

5 



-5 

-10 




1974 1975 1976 



PERCENT CHANGE 
ANNUAL RATES 



M2 




i 1 


\ 






Y^ 


/\i 


IP 


IV 



















20 

15 

10 

5 



-5 

-10 



1974 1975 1976 



PERCENT CHANGE 
ANNUAL RATES 



M5 














vy 


A 





















1974 1975 1976 



1974 1975 1976 





MAY 


APRIL 


MAY 


MONEY SUPPLY 


1975 


1976 


1976 


MONEY STOCK MEASURES 








M1 (Billions of Dollars) 


287.6 


301.7 


303.1 


Percent Change at Annual Rates 


11.4 


14.9 


5.6 


M2 (Billions of Dollars) 


633.7 


691.9 


697.0 


Percent Change at Annual Rates 


13.4 


14.9 


8.8 


M3 (Billions of Dollars) 


1,025.3 


1,141.1 


1,151.0 


Percent Change at Annual Rates 


14.9 


14.7 


10.4 


M5 (Billions of Dollars) 


1,110.4 


1,212.6 


1,219.1 


Percent Change at Annual Rates 


10.1 


12.1 


6.4 



SOURCE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE 



84 CONSUMER INSTALLMENT CREDIT 



Consumer Credit 
Outstanding Rises 
$1.4 Billion in April 

Consumer installment credit 
outstanding increased $1.4 
billion in April, compared 
to the $1 .5 billion expan- 
sion posted in March. This 
is the eleventh consecutive 
increase in outstanding 
credit, and with the excep- 
tion of March, the largest 



gain since August 1974. 
Outstanding credit expanded 
more during the first 4 
months of 1976 than during 
all of 1975. 

Extensions of consumer 
credit— credit sales and new 
loans made— declined $543 
millions from the March high 
of $16.3 billion. Credit 
liquidations— repayments, 
charge-offs, and miscellan- 
eous credits such as returns 



and adjustments— also de- 
clined, dropping $466 million 
to $14.3 billion, the lowest 
level since last November. 

Auto credit and "All 
Other" credit were the major 
factors in the April expan- 
sion of consumer installment 
credit outstanding. 

Holdings by commercial 
banks, which account for 
nearly half of all out- 
standing credit, rose $561 



million, about the same as 
in March. Credit union 
holdings were up $392 
million. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



I ! I 
CONSUMER INSTALLMENT CREDIT 












EXTENSI 

/ 


ONS i 










/ 
























r J ^ / i 








^ 




\ 

LIQUID/ 


moNs 
















fr 




























































NETCH/! 

INSTALL 


^NGE IN COr 
MENT CREC 


^ISUMER 
)IT OUTSTA 








MDING 


















ClJJ 










P^ 


aM 








Tj— ' 








j i i i i i j i i i i 1 i i i i i i i i i i i 


i i i i i i t i i ■ i 





APRIL 


MARCH 


APRIL 


CONSUMER CREDIT 


1975 


1976 


1976 




Millions of Dollars 




TOTAL INSTALLMENT CREDIT 








Extensions 


13,168 


16,318 


15,775 


Liquidations 


13,408 


14,805 


14,339 


Net Change in Credit Outstanding 


241 


+ 1,513 


+ 1,436 


BY TYPE OF CREDIT 








Automobile 








Extensions 


3,477 


4,537 


4,438 


Liquidations 


3,746 


3,883 


3,728 


Net Change in Credit Outstanding 


269 


+654 


+710 


"All Other" 








Extensions 


7,198 


8.613 


8,335 


Liquidations 


7,107 


7,998 


7,735 


Net Change in Credit Outstanding 


+91 


+615 


+600 


BY HOLDER OF CREDIT 








Commercial Banks 








Extensions 


5,665 


7,102 


6,729 


Liquidations 


5,976 


6,530 


6,168 


Net Change in Credit Outstanding 


311 


+572 


+561 


Credit Unions 








Extensions 


1,961 


2,389 


2,386 


Liquidations 


1,763 


1,875 


1,994 


Net Change in Credit Outstanding 


+ 198 


+514 


+392 



197 1 



1972 



1973 



974 



1975 



1976 



TYPE OF CONSUMER INSTALLMENT CREDIT 



HOLDERS OF CONSUMER INSTALLMENT CREDIT 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 





1 I I I I 

AUTOMOBILE CREDIT 


































EXTE 

\ 


NSIO 


n<; 
























". 










JQU 


DAT 


ONS 
















l l i 


II 1 


.111 


II 1 


11 1, 


II 1 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 




.(Consists of Consumer. 

Goods Other Than 

Automobiles and 
"Personal Loans) 



J-LL 



-^ 



JJ_L 



U_L 



J_LL 



J_LL 





BILLIONS 


OF 


DOLLARS 






I [ 




COMMERCIAL BANKS 




1 1 1 

EXTENSIONS 












\ 




^y 


-\ 










\ 






D " 




l\ 




\ 












* 


*A/» 












J ~l 










































n - 


1 1 1 


1 LI 


i i i 


i i i 


1 1 1 


1 II 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 





1 1 

CREDIT UN 


IONS 




































































LIQL 


IDA! 


IONS 

\ 








EXTE 

/ 


NSIO 


NS 


I 


j 






/ 












II 1 


1 1 1 


III 


.111. 


LLL 


.J_LL 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 11976 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



'1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 



SOURCE BOARD OF GOVERNORSOF THE FEDERAL RESERVE 



Section IV 



other 
trends 



85 




Sources & Uses of 
Energy: 1950 to 1975 

Major Sources of Energy 86 

Distribution of Energy 
Consumed, by Source: 
1975 86 

Energy Use in 
Manufacturing 

Quantity of Energy 
Consumed 87 

Total Energy 
Expenditures 87 

Unit Energy Cost 87 

Expenditures by Energy 
Source 87 

Quantity of Energy 
Consumed, by Type of 
Fuel 88 

Unit Cost, by Type of 
Fuel 88 

Percent Distribution 
of Energy 89 

Consumption by Manu- 
facturing Industries 89 

The 16 Largest Energy 
Consuming Industries 89 



Pollution Abatement 
Expenditures 

Governmental Expenditures 
For Pollution Abatement 
by Level of Government 
1972 to 1974 90 

Governmental Expenditures 
of Pollution Abatement by 
Types of Pollutant: 
1972-1974 90 

Mineral & Metal 
Imports in 1975 91 



86 SOURCES & USES OF ENERGY: 1950 to 1975 



Natural Gas Use 
Triples in 25 Years; 
Coal Down 50% 

The sources of energy con- 
sumed in the United States 
have changed drastically 
during the 25-year period, 
1950 to 1975. 

Although coal's share of 
energy use was 38 percent 
in 1950, it fell to 17 per- 
cent by 1972 and rose only 



to 19 percent in 1975. In 
contrast, there was a sharp 
increase in the relative 
use of petroleum and natural 
gas. The sharpest increase 
was exhibited by natural 
gas, which more than tripled 
its energy contribution over 
the 25-year period. 

Hydropower's percentage 
share of energy consumption 
remained fairly constant but 
nuclear power generation, 



which was not available in 
1950, had grown to 2 percent 
of the U.S. energy consumed 
in 1975. 

During 1975 total U.S. 
energy consumption went 
down for the second consec- 
utive year. Domestic oil 
and gas production continued 
to decline, decreasing about 
5 and 7 percent respectively. 
The decline in petroleum 
output necessitated greater 



imports of foreign oil which 
amounted to 2.2 million 
barrels. At the same time, 
however, domestic productio 
of coal and nuclear power 
increased. Bituminous coal 
and lignite output rose 6.1 
percent to a record high of 
640 million tons in 1975. 



QUADRILLION B.T.U. 




-■ 



80 



OUADR I LL ION BTU 



70 -- 



60 -- 



50 — 



40 -- 



30 -- 



20 -- 



10 -- 



MAJOR USES OF ENERGY 



1 5% 



25% 



22% 



38% 



28% 



26% 



19% 



27% 



ELECTRICITY 

GENERATION 

(UTILITIES) . 



TRANSPOR- 
TATION 



HOUSEHOLD" 

AND 
COMMERCIAL 



INDUSTRIAL 



1950 1975 



1950 



1955 



1960 



1965 



1970 



1975 



DISTRIBUTION OF ENERGY CONSUMED, BY SOURCE: 1975 

2% 
HYDROPOWER 



3.2 QUADRILLION B.T.U. 



COAL 

13.2 QUADRILLION B.T.U. 



NATURAL GAS 

20.2 QUADRILLION B.T.U 




NUCLEAR 

1.7 QUADRILLION B.T.U. 



-PETROLEUM 
32.7 QUADRILLION B.T.U. 



SOURCE 



ENERGY USE IN MANUFACTURING 



87 



Sharply Higher Prices 
Push Energy Costs up 
87% in 3 Years 

In 1974, manufacturers used 
3.91 trillion kilowatt-hour 
(KWH) equivalents of pur- 
chased fuels and electricity 
for heat and power. This 
was only slightly above the 
3.85 trillion consumed in 
1971 . Sharply higher energy 
prices pushed the average 



cost per thousand KWH to 
$4.98 in 1974 from $2.71 
3 years earlier. As a 
result, the total energy 
cost climbed 87 percent 
to a 1974 level of $19.5 
billion. 

It is estimated that 
manufacturing accounts for 
20 to 25 percent of all 
energy consumed for power 
and heat in the United 
States. 



Energy Spending Up 300% 
for Oil; 69 % for 
Electricity, Natural Gas 

The two largest energy 
sources, electricity and 
natural gas, accounted for 
66 percent of total energy 
expenditures in 1974; down 
from 73 percent in 1971. 
Expenditures for each 
increased 69 percent over 
the 3-year period. 



The largest increases were 
reported for residual and 
distillate fuel oils; both 
more than tripled in value 
from 1971 to 1974. 



TRILLION KWH EQUIVALENT 



EXPENDITURES BY ENERGY SOURCE 

1.46 




10 



NATURAL GAS 



COAL (Bituminous, 
Lignite, and 
Anthracite) 



RESIDUAL FUELOIL 



DISTILLATE FUELOIL 



COKE 



PURCHASED ELECTRICITY 
5.07 



8.57 



1962 



1967 



1971 



1974 



4 6 

BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



10 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



ENERGY USE IN MANUFACTURING 



Electric Energy Use 

Up 21% from 1971 to 1974; 

Natural Gas, Coal Down 

From 1971 to 1974, use of 
electric energy rose 21 
percent to 620.8 billion 
kilowatt hours (KWH). Dur- 
ing the same period unit 
cost increased 40 percent, 
from S9.85 to $13.81 per 



1,000 KWH. This was the 
smallest price rise among 
all energy sources. 

Among the fuels, consump- 
tion of natural gas, as 
measured in kilowatt-hour 
equivalents, declined 2 per- 
cent in the 3-year period 
1971 to 1974, compared to 
a 22-percent increase in 
the previous 4-year period. 



The unit cost rose 95 cents 
to $2.26, the smallest cost 
increase of all fuels. 

There was a further 
pronounced decline in coal 
usage. In 1962, coal ac- 
counted for one-fourth of 
all energy consumed; in 
1974 the proportion had 
declined to one-tenth. 



The largest increases 
in unit cost were reported 
for the fuel oils. Prices 
for residual fuel oil rose 
200 percent; for distillate 
oil, prices were up 170 
percent. 



2 . 500 


2 .000 1 , 500 
I | 


1 , 000 
I 


500 
1 


1 


1 1 


1 


1 


1 , 307 






1.610 1 






.95sH 






1.91 6 | 










6 


87 


576 ! 


47 1 I 


366 1 




QUANTITY OF ENERGY CONSUMED 




278 | 


208 * 


2 59 1 
297 1 








?6 I 








112| 








179 J 








2 14 I 








135 








103| 








105 1 








1 12 1 








3 14 


428 1 


515 | 




1 1 


1 


62 1 1 

1 1 




NATURAL GAS 



1 2 



15 



18 



1962 
1967 
1971 
1974 

COAL 

1962 
1967 
1971 
1974 



RESIDUAL 
FUEL OIL 



1962 
1967 
1971 
1974 



DISTILLATE 
FUEL OIL 



1962 
1967 
1971 
1974 

COKE 

1962 
1967 
1971 
1974 



PURCHASED 
ELECTRICITY 




1.11 
1 . 09 
1.31 
2 . 26 



0.93 
0.96 

1 . 40 

I 2 . 94 



2 . 26 
2.41 
3.03 



UNIT COST 




6 . 23 




6 . 83 




6 . 66 



2 . 500 2 , 000 1 . 500 1 . 000 

BILLION KWH EQUIVALENT 



500 




13.81 



6 9 12 

DOLLARS PER KWH 



1 5 



18 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



ENERGY USE IN MANUFACTURING 



89 



16 Industries Consume 57 
Percent of Manufacturing 
Energy Use Total 

Less than 1 percent of the 
451 manufacturing industries 
consumed 34 percent of total 
purchased energy. The 4 
largest energy consumers- 
blast furnaces and steel 
mills, petroleum refining, 
industrial organic chemicals, 
and paper mills-used 1.4 



trillion KWH equivalents in 
1974. The 5th through 8th 
largest industries accounted 
for 13 percent, and the 
next 8 largest used nearly 
10 percent. Thus, the 16 
largest energy consuming 
industries accounted for 
almost 57 percent of the 
total. 





MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES: 


1974 












___^^5th THRU 8th LARGEST 


4 LARGEST INDUSTRIES^ 


33.9% 


13.2% 


9.6% \ 


^ 9th THRU 16th LARGEST 




y^ 43.3% 






ALLOTHER INDUSTRIES — 









BLAST FURNACES AND STEEL MILLS 

PETROLEUM REFINING 

INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMICALS, NEC. 

PAPERMILLS, EXC. BUILDING PAPER 

PAPERBOARD MILLS 

CEMENT, HYDRAULIC 

INDUSTRIAL INORGANIC CHEMICALS, NEC. 

PRIMARY ALUMINUM 

N I TR0GEN0US FERT I L I 2ERS 

PLASTICS MATERIALS AND RESINS 

ALKALIES AND CHLORINE 

ORGANIC FIBERS, NONCELLULOSIC 

GLASS CONTAINERS 

CYCLIC CRUDES AND INTERMEDIATES 

MOTOR VEHICLE PARTS AND ACCESSORIES 

MOTOR VEHICLES AND CAR BODIES 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



50 



100 



150 



200 



250 



300 



350 



400 450 



500 



= 



wF 2 



440 
428 




I 



117 



107 



53 
53 



45 
41 
41 



36 
32 



289 



THE 16 LARGEST 
ENERGY CONSUMING 
INDUSTRIES 



50 



100 



150 



200 250 300 

BILLIONS OF KWH EQUIVALENTS 



350 



400 450 



500 



90 POLLUTION ABATEMENT EXPENDITURES 



Governmental Funds 
To Battle Pollution Up 
27% from 1972 to 1974 

Total direct spending by 
all levels of government for 
pollution control activities 
reached a level of 57 
billion in 1974, a 27 
percent increase over 1972. 
(This total excludes pay- 
ments to other levels of 
governments known as inter- 



governmental expenditures.) 

Water pollution control 
is the primary focus of 
governmental pollution 
abatement spending. In 
1974, water pollution con- 
trol expenditures took 88 
percent of all federal envi- 
ronmental quality control 
activities. Solid waste 
operations, primarily con- 
sisting of garbage collection 



and disposal, are almost 
entirely a function of local 
governments. The Federal 
Government furnishes almost 
two-thirds of all air pollu- 
tion control monies. 

In 1974, the Federal 
Government spent $2.4 billion 
for pollution control, a 
75-percent increase over 
the $1 .4 billion disbursed 
in 1973. Larger payments 
to State and local govern- 



ments accounted for almost 
90 percent of the increase. 

Federal payments to local 
governments for the construc- 
tion of sewage treatment 
facilities made up the larg- 
est single item of inter- 
governmental expenditure, 
making up more than three- 
fourths of all Federal pollu- 
tion control spending in 1974. 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



BILLIONS OF DOLLARS 



4 - 



3 - 



2 - 



1 - 




INTERGOVERNMENTAL EXPENDITURE 
DIRECT EXPENDITURE 



S6.3 



GOVERNMENTAL EXPENDITURES FOR 
POLLUTION ABATEMENT BY LEVEL 
OF GOVERNMENT: 1972-1974 




S2.4 






$1.4 



S0.6 



SO. 7 



S0.8 






1972 1973 1974 
FEDERAL 



1972 1973 1974 
STATE 



1972 1973 1974 
LOCAL 




1972 1973 1974 1972 1973 1974 1972 1973 1974 
FEDERAL STATE LOCAL 



SOURCE BUREAU OF THE CENSUS 



MINERAL & METAL IMPORTS IN 1975 



91 



U.S. Dependent on 
Imports for Many 
Important Minerals 

U.S. dependence on foreign 
sources for essential min- 
eral materials varies widely. 
For example, while totally 
dependent on imports for 
columbium, sheet mica, and 
strontium, the U.S. relies 
on imports for less than 5 
percent of cement, lead, 



natural gas, and nonmetallic 
magnesium. 

U.S. net imports in 1975 
were half or more for 22 
mineral materials, 13 of 
which were among the criti- 
cal industrial materials 
identified by the Council 
on International Economic 
Policy in its December 
1974 publication, "Special 
Report: Critical Imported 
Materials." 



(Net imports of a par- 
ticular commodity is the 
amount of U.S. consumption 
in percentage terms of U.S. 
imports minus U.S. exports 
plus or minus changes in 
both industry and govern- 
mental stockpiles.) 

U.S. imports of raw and 
processed minerals during 
1 975 were valued at $40 bil- 
lion, including $26 billion 
for fuels. Mineral imports 



exceeded mineral exports by 
$22 billion. Much of this 
monetary deficit can be 
traced to increased prices 
for crude and refined 
petroleum. 



MINERAL 




25 

i 


50 75 10 
i i 




l i 


COLUMBIUM 


100 






MICA (SHEET) 


100 






STRONT I UM 


100 






MANGANESE 


99 I 






COBALT 


98 I 






TANTALUM 


95 I 






CHROM I UM 


91 1 






ASBESTOS 


^j86 






ALUMINUM (ORES AND METAL) 


JH 85 






FLUOR I NE 


■ 82 






B I SMUTH 


^] 80 






PLATINUM GROUP METALS 


■ 80 






TIN 


l/b 






MERCURY 


1 73 






NICKEL 


171 






ZINC 


I 64 






TELLURIUM 


■ 59 


SELENIUM 




■ 58 






ANT I MONY 


■ 56 






TUNGSTEN 


■ 54 






CADM I UM 


I 50 






POTASS I UM 


■ 49 


GOLD 


■ 45 






GYPSUM 


■ 39 






VANAD I UM 


I 36 


BAR I UM 

PETROLEUM (INC. NAT. GAS LIQ.) 

SILVER 

IRON 

TITANIUM ( ILMENITE) 

SALT 

PUM I CE 

CEMENT 

LEAD 

NATURAL GAS 

MAGNES I UM ( NONMETAL L I C ) 




■ 35 




| 35 






30 
29 
28 

I i 












1 








1 


■ 6 


I 


( 


) 


1 
25 


I I 
50 75 1C 
PERCENT 



MAJOR FOREIGN SOURCES 

BRAZIL, THAILAND, NIGERIA 

INDIA, BRAZIL, MALAGASY 

MEXICO, U.K., SPAIN 

BRAZIL, GABON, AUSTRALIA, SOUTH AFRICA 

ZAIRE, BELGIUM-LUXEMBOURG, FINLAND, NORWAY, CANADA 

THAILAND, CANADA, AUSTRALIA, BRAZIL 

SOUTH AFRICA, U.S.S.R., TURKEY, RHODESIA 

CANADA, SOUTH AFRICA 

JAMAICA, SURINAM, AUSTRALIA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 

MEXICO, SPAIN, ITALY 

PERU, JAPAN, MEXICO, U.K. 

SOUTH AFRICA, U.K., U.S.S.R. 

MALAYSIA, THAILAND, BOLIVIA 

CANADA, ALGERIA, MEXICO, SPAIN 

CANADA, NORWAY 

CANADA, MEXICO, AUSTRALIA, HONDURAS, PERU 

PERU, CANADA 

CANADA, JAPAN, MEXICO 

SOUTH AFRICA, P.R. CHINA, BOLIVIA, MEXICO 

CANADA, BOLIVIA, THAILAND, PERU 

MEXICO, CANADA, AUSTRALIA, BELGIUM-LUXEMBOURG 

CANADA 

CANADA, SWITZERLAND, U.K., FRANCE 

CANADA, MEXICO, JAMAICA 

SOUTH AFRICA, CHILE, U.S.S.R. 

IRELAND, PERU, MEXICO 

CANADA, VENEZUELA, NIGERIA, SAUDI ARABIA 

CANADA, MEXICO, PERU 

CANADA, VENEZUELA, JAPAN, COMMON MARKET (EEC) 

CANADA, AUSTRALIA 

CANADA, MEXICO, BAHAMAS, CHILE 

GREECE, ITALY 

CANADA, BAHAMAS, NORWAY, U.K. 

CANADA, PERU, AUSTRALIA, MEXICO 

CANADA 

GREECE, IRELAND, JAPAN 



SOURCE BUREAU OF MINES 



92 



sources 



Section I 

PEOPLE 

POPULATION PROJECTIONS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Current Population Report 

Series P-25 Nos. 545, 601, 614, 

617 

Contact: 

Estimates: Jennifer Peck 

301-763-5184 

Projections: Campbell Gibson 

301-763-5300 

SELECTED CURRENT VITAL 
STATISTICS 

U.S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, 
National Center for Health 
Statistics, Monthly Vital 
Statistics Reports 
Contact: 

Sandra Surber Smith 
301-443-1200 

BIRTHS AND FERTILITY 
U.S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, 
National Center for Health 
Statistics, Vital and Health 
Statistics, Series 21, No. 
19, "Natality Statistics 
Analysis, United States, 
1965- 1967", Monthly Vital 
Statistics Report, "Summary 
Report, Final Natality 
Statistics," 1974; "Provi- 
sional Statistics," Vol. 24, 
No. 12, March 4, 1976; Replacement 
Fertility: Census Bureau estimates 
Contact: 
Maurice Moore 301-763-5303 

EMPLOYMENT AND 

UNEMPLOYMENT 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

77>e Employment Situation 

Contact: 

John Bregger 202-523-1944 



LABOR TURNOVER IN 

MANUFACTURING 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

Employment and Earnings Statistics 

for the United States 

Contact: 

G. Storch 202-523-1364 

K. Hoyle 202-523-1913 

AVERAGE WORKWEEK 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

Employment and Earnings 

Statistics for the United 

States 

Contact: 

John Bregger 202-523-1944 

PERSONAL INCOME 

U.S. Department of Commerce 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Survey of Current Business 

Contact: 

Pauline M. Cypert 

202-523-0832 

URBAN FAMILY BUDGET 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

Monthly Labor Review 

Contact: 

J. Rogers 202-523-1579 



FOOD STAMPS 
U.S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, Agricultural Statistics 
1975, 1975 Handbook of 
Agricultural Charts" 

Contact: 

Dr. Stephen Hiemstra 

202-447-8044 



EDUCATION PROJECTIONS 
U.S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, 
National Center for Educa- 
tion Statistics, "Projec- 
tions of Education Statis- 
tics to 1984-85" 
Contact: 

Martin M. Frankel 
202245-8352 

HEALTH INSURANCE 

COVERAGE 

U.S. Department of Health, 

Education, and Welfare, 

National Center for Health 



Statistics, Monthly Vital 

Statistics Report, "Health 

Interview Survey Data" Vol. 

25, No. 2, Supplement 3, 

May 19, 1976 

Contact: 

Sandra Surber Smith 

301-443-1200 

CHARACTERISTICS 

OF WOMEN 

U.S. Department of Commerce 

Bureau of the Census, 

Current Population Report 

Series P-23, No. 58, "Women 

in the U.S. " 

Contact: 

Karen Mills 301-763-5590 



Special Feature 

HISTORICAL 
STATISTICS 
OF THE 
UNITED STATES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census 
Detailed sources are listed in 
the publication. 
Copyrighted information is 
noted on the 
chart and includes: 
Labor Force and Its Components, 
1900-1946, Stanley Lebergott, 
Manpower in Economic Growth: 
The American Record Since 1800 
table A.3 (Copyright 1964) 
used with permission of McGraw- 
Hill Book Co., New York). 

Newspapers— Circulation of 
Daily and Sunday Newspapers 
Editor and Publisher, New 
York, N.Y., International 
Year Book Number, various 
issues. 

Index of Common Stock Prices, 
Standard and Poors' Corpora- 
tion, Trade and Securities 
Statistics, Security Price 
Index Record, New York, 
1971 edition 

Popular Vote Cast for 
President by Political Party, 
1789-1832, Edward Stan wood, 
A History of the Presidency, 



Houghton Mifflin Company, 
Boston, 1928; 1836-1892. 
W. Dean Burnham, Presidential 
Ballo ts, 1 836- 1 892 .Johns 
Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 
1955; 1896-1932, Edgar Eugene 
Robinson, The Presidential 
Vote, Stanford University 
Press, Stanford, 1934; 1936- 
1944, Edgar Eugene Robinson, 
They Voted for Roosevelt, 
Stanford University Press, 
Stanford, 1947; 1948-1962 Elec- 
tions Research Center, American 
at the Polls, 1965; 1964-1972, 
Elections Research Center, 
America Votes, various issues. 



Section II 

COMMUNITY 
LOCAL GOVERNMENT 
REVENUE 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, 
Public Taxes and Income 
Revenue of Counties, 
Municipalities and Town- 
ships 1974-75, G-76 
Contact: 
Vance Kane 301-763-5847 

PUBLIC LABOR-MANAGEMENT 
RELATIONS 

U.S. Department of Commerce 

Bureau of the Census, 

Public Labor Management 

Relations in State and 

Local Governments, G-75 

Contact: 

Alan Stevens 301-763-5086 

GENERAL HOUSING 
CHARACTERISTICS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, 
General Housing Character- 
istics, HI 50-738 
Contact: 
Elmo Beach 301-763-2881 

CRIME INDEX TRENDS 

U.S. Department of Justice, 
Federal Bureau of Investi- 
gation, Uniform Crime 



93 



Report, Crime in the United 

States 1975 Advance Release 

Contact: 

Paul Zol be 202-324-2614 

CRIMINAL JUSTICE 
EXPENDITURES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, 
Expenditures and Employment 
Data for the Criminal 
Justice System 1974, GSS 
No. 77 
Contact: 
Diana Cull 301-763-2842 

VOTER PARTICIPATION 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Voting and Registration in 

the Election of Nov. 1974 

Series P-20, No. 293 

Contact: 

Larry Suter 301-763-5050 



Section III 

ECONOMY 

GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Survey of Current Business 

Contact: 

Leo Bernstein 202-523-0824 

CORPORATE PROFITS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of Economic Analysis, 
Survey of Current Business 
Contact: 

Jacqueline Bauman 
202-523-0833 

BUSINESS CONDITIONS 

INDICATORS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Business Conditions Digest 

Contact: 

FeliksTamm 301-763-7614 

INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION 

Board of Governors of the 
Federal Reserve System, 



Federal Reserve Bulletin 
and Statistical Re/ease, 
G-12.3 "Industrial Produc- 
tion" 
Contact: 
Joan Hosley 202-452-2476 

MANUFACTURING AND TRADE 
SALES AND INVENTORIES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Manufacturing and Trade 

Sales and Inventories 

Taken from U.S. Bureau of the 

Census reports. 

Monthly Retail Trade 

Report, Manufacturers' 

Shipments, Inventories, and 

Orders, Series M3-1 

Contact: 

Manufactures 

William Menth 301-763-2502 

Retail 

Conrad Alexander 

301-763-7128 

Wholesale 

Ronald Piencykoski 

301-763-5294 

ADVANCE REPORT 
ON RETAIL SALES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Advance Monthly Retail 

Trade Report 

Contact: 

Irving True 301-763-7660 

HOUSING STARTS AND 
PERMITS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Housing Starts C-20 

Contact: 

William K. Mittendorf 

301-763-7314 

NEW HOME SALES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Sales of New One-Family 

Homes, C-25 

Contact: 

Juliana Van Berkum 

301-763-7314 

VALUE OF NEW 
CONSTRUCTION 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, 
Value of New Construction 



Put-in-Place, C-30 

Contact: 

Allan Meyer 301-763-5717 

CONSUMER PRICE INDEX 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

"77?e Consumer Price Index" 

Contact: 

Mrs. T. Nakayama 

202-523-1965 

WHOLESALE PRICE INDEX 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

"Wholesale Price Index" 

Contact: 

K. Hoyle 202-523-1913 

AGRICULTURAL PRICES 

U.S. Department of Agricul- 
ture, Crop Reporting Board 
Agricultural Prices 
Contact: 
Don Barrowman 202-447-3570 

PRODUCTIVITY AND 
LABOR COSTS 

U.S. Department of Labor, 

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 

Productivity and Costs in 

the Private Economy 

Contact: 

L. Fulco 202-523-9261 

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Highlights of Exports and 

Imports, FT-990 

Contact: 

Harold Blyweiss 

301-763-7776 

FEDERAL 

GOVERNMENT RECEIPTS 
AND EXPENDITURES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Economic Analysis, 

Survey of Current Business 

Contact: 

David Dobbs 202-523-0885 

THE MONEY STOCK 

Board of Governors of the 

Federal Reserve System, 

Statistical Release H. 6, 

Money Stock Measures 

Contact: 

Darwin Beck 202-452-3591 



CONSUMER CREDIT 

Board of Governors of the 

Federal Reserve System, 

Statistical Release G. 19, 

Consumer Credit 

Contact: 

Reba Driver 202-452-2458 



OTHER 
TRENDS 

SOURCES AND USES 
OF ENERGY 

U.S. Department of Interior 

Bureau of the Mines, 

Status of the Mineral 

Industries, 1976 

Contact: 

Edward Johnson 202-634-1 264 

ENERGY USE IN 
MANUFACTURING 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of the Census, 

Fuels and Electric Energy 

Consumed M74(AS)-4. 1 

Contact: 

John McNamee 301-763-5938 

POLLUTION ABATEMENT 
EXPENDITURES 

U.S. Department of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census, 
Environmental Quality 
Control, Governmental 
Finances and Employment: 
Fiscal Year 1973-74, No. 76 
Contact: 
John Curry 301-763-5094 

IMPORTS OF METALS AND 
MINERALS 

U.S. Department of Interior, 

Bureau of the Mines, 

Status of the Mineral 

Industries, 1976 

Contact: 

Edward Johnson 202-634-1 264 

TRANSPORTATION TRENDS 
U.S. Department of Transpor- 
tation, Summary of National 
Transportation Statistics 
June 1976 
Contact: 

Doris Groff Velona 
202-426-4138 



94 



notes & 
definitions 



NOTES 

Rounding— Detailed data in 
the tables may not agree with 
totals because of independent 
rounding. Furthermore, cal- 
culations shown in the text, 
such as percent and absolute 
changes are based on the un- 
rounded figures and therefore 
may not agree with those de- 
rived from rounded figures 
in the table. 

Seasonal Adjustment— Unless 
otherwise indicated, all data 
of less than annual frequency 
are seasonally adjusted by 
the source agency or exhibit 
no seasonal fluctuation. 

Survey and Sampling Error— 
The data in this chartbook 
come from a variety of surveys 
and other sources. Data from 
sample surveys are subject to 
sampling error, and all the 
data are subject to possible 
nonsampling error due to non- 
response, reporting, and anal- 
ysis error. For more detailed 
explanations of the sampling 
and nonsampling errors asso- 
ciated with each series, con- 
tact the appropriate source. 

DEFINITIONS 

GENERAL 

Average or Arithmetic Mean— 
The sum of the values of all 
cases divided by the number 
of cases. 

Constant Dollars— Computed 
values which remove the effect 
of price changes over time, 
generally derived by dividing 
current-dollar values by 
their corresponding price 
indexes. 

Current Dollars— The dollar 
as valued in any given 
period with no adjustment 
for price changes. 

Durable Goods-Items with 
an extended life expectancy, 
normally 3 years or more. 



Housing Unit— One or more 
rooms intended for use as 
separate living quarters and 
including access from the out- 
side, either direct or through 
a common hall, or complete 
kitchen facilities for ex- 
clusive use by the occupants. 

Index Number— A measure of 
relative value compared with 
a base figure (usually set 
equal to 100) for the same 
series. 

Median— The value which 
divides the distribution 
into two equal parts— one 
half the cases falling below 
this value and one-half ex- 
ceeding this value. 

Nondurable Goods— Items which 
are consumed by their utiliz- 
ation or with a short life 
expectancy (3 years or less). 

Projections— Estimates for 
the future based on past 
records and on assumptions 
regarding future growth. 

Real-Measured in dollars of 
constant purchasing power. 
See constant dollars. 

Seasonal Adjustment— Statis- 
tical modifications made to 
compensate for fluctuations 
in a time series which recur 
more or less regularly each 
year. The cause may be 
climatic (farm income is 
highest in the fall) or in- 
stitutional (retail sales 
peak just before Christmas). 

Seasonally Adjusted Annual 

Rate— Indicates that data 
have been adjusted for sea- 
sonal variation and then 
expressed as if the same 
level of performance for the 
reported period would con- 
tinue for the entire year. 
The transformation is accom- 
plished by multiplying monthly 
data by 12 and quarterly data 
by 4. 

Standard Metropolitan 
Statistical Area (SMS A) -An 
integrated economic and so- 
cial unit with a large popu- 
lation nucleus containing at 
least one central city with 
50,000 inhabitants or more 
or two cities having con- 
tiguous boundaries and a com- 
bined population of at least 
50,000. 



Section I 

PEOPLE 

Selected Current Vital Stat- 
istics-Rates are on an an- 
nual basis. Infant mortal- 
ity rates are deaths under 
1 year per 1 ,000 live births 
and are adjusted for vary- 
ing numbers of births. 
Other rates are per 1 ,000 
estimated resident population 
for specific months. 

Births and Fertility 

Annual Births— The number of 
births registered as occurring 
in the United States in a 
given year. Prior to 1960 
the numbers of births are 
adjusted to correct for 
underregistration. 

Total Fertility Rate-The 
total fertility rate for a 
given year is a hypothetical 
measure of how many births a 
woman would have on the 
average if, during each year of 
her entire reproductive life, 
she were to experience the 
age-specific birth rates 
recorded for that given year. 

Replacement Fertility— This 

is an estimate of the number 
of children each woman must 
have on the average in order 
for one generation to be re- 
placed exactly by the next. 
This measure takes into 
account mortality con- 
conditions that prevail at 
the time. 

Employment and 
Unemployment 

Civilian Labor Force — All 
civilians 16 years old and 
over who were employed or 
unemployed during a 
specified week. 

Employed Persons— Persons 

who did any work for pay or 
profit, worked 15 hours or 
more as unpaid workers in a 
family enterprise, or who 
were temporarily absent from 
their jobs for noneconomic 
reasons. 

Unemployed Persons— Persons 
not working but available 
and looking for work, on 
layoff from a job, or waiting 
to report to a new job. 



Labor Turnover in 
Manufacturing 

Labor Turnover-The movement 
of wage and salary workers in- 
to and out of employed status. 

Total Accessions— The total 

number of permanent and 
temporary additions to the 
employment rolls, including 
both new and rehired employees. 
Other accessions, which are 
not published separately but 
are included in total acces- 
sions, include transfers from 
other establishments of the 
company and employees recalled 
from layoff. 

Total Separations— Permanent 
or temporary terminations of 
employment. Other separations, 
which are not published separ- 
ately but are included in 
total separations, include 
discharge, permanent dis- 
ability, death, retirement, 
transfers to another estab- 
lishment of the company, and 
entrance into the Armed Forces 
for a period expected to last 
more than 30 consecutive days. 

Personal Income 
Distributive Industries- 
Industries involved in the 
flow of goods and services 
from production to consumption, 
including buying, selling, 
advertising, transporting, 
etc. 

Personal Income— Income 

received by all individuals 
in the economy from all 
sources. 

Wage and Salary Disbursements 

—All employee earnings in- 
cluding wages, salaries, 
bonuses, commissions, payments 
in kind, incentive payments 
and tips, paid to employees in 
a given period of time, regard- 
less of when these are earned. 

Urban Family Budget 

Represents the cost of three hy- 
pothetical lists of goods and 
services that were specified 
in the mid-1960's to portray 
three relative standards of 
living— described as lower, 
intermediate, and higher. 
These budgets are for a pre- 
cisely defined urban family 
of four: a 38-year old hus- 
band employed full-time, his 
nonworking wife, a boy of 13, 



95 



a girl of 8. The couple is 
assumed to have been married 
about 15 years and to be 
settled in the community. The 
budgets are not based on how 
families actually spent their 
money but reflect assumptions 
about the manner of living. 
They are not intended to 
represent a minimum level 
of adequate income or a sub- 
sistence level of living. 

Food Stamps 

Bonus Value of Food Stamps— 

The portion of the coupon 
allotment paid for by the 
Federal Government. 

Total Value of Food Stamps— 

The amount recipients are 
required to pay, plus the 
"Bonus" paid by the Federal 
Government. 

School Enrollment 
Projections 

Education Projections— Enroll- 
ment projections quoted in this 
publication are based essen- 
tially on trends in enrollment 
rates over the past 1 1 years 
and on projected population 
by age groups from which 
enrollment will be drawn in 
the next 10 years. 

Characteristics of Women 
General Fertility— The number 
of births per year per 1,000 
women 15 to 44 years of age. 

Life Expectancy at Birth— A 

measure that represent the 
average number of years a 
newborn child may expect to 
live according to the death 
rates of a given year or 
period. 

Section II 
COMMUNITY 

Local Government Revenue 

Property Taxes— Taxes con- 
ditioned on ownership of prop- 
erty and measured by its 
value; includes taxes on 
selected types of property, 
such as motor vehicles or 
certain intangibles. 



Public Labor Manage- 
ment Relations 
Public Labor Contract— A mu- 
tually binding agreement on 
conditions of employment bi- 
laterally negotiated between 
labor and management represen- 
tatives of State and local 
governmental bargaining units. 

Memorandum of Understanding- 

A written, nonbinding agree- 
ment on conditions of employ- 
ment reached through periodic 
discussions between public 
employer and employee repre- 
sentatives. 

General Housing 
Characteristics 

Gross Rent— The regular month- 
ly rent contracted for, plus 
the estimated average monthly 
cost of utilities and fuels, 
if these items are paid for 
by the renter in addition to 
the rent. 

Housing Unit— See General 
Definitions 

Crime Index Trends 

Burglary-Breaking or enter- 
ing-burglary, housebreaking, 
safecracking, or any breaking 
or unlawful entry of a struc- 
ture with the intent to 
commit a felony or a theft. 
Includes attempted forcible 
entry. 

Larceny-Theft (except Motor 
Vehicle Theft)— The unlawful 
taking, carrying, leading, 
or riding away of property 
from the possession of another. 
Any stealing of property or 
article which is not taken by 
force and violence or by fraud. 

Robbery-Stealing or taking 
anything of value from the 
care, custody, or control of 
a person by force or by 
violence, or by putting in 
fear, such as strong-arm 
robbery, stickups, armed 
robbery, assaults to rob, 
and attempts to rob. 

Criminal Justice Expenditures 

Judicial Activities-All 
courts and activities asso- 
ciated with courts such as 
law libraries and juries. 

Indigent Defense-Activities 
associated with the right of 



persons to have legal counsel 
and representation. 

Legal Services— Civil and 
criminal justice activities 
of attorneys general; district 
attorneys; States attorneys; 
other legal departments of 
various names. 

Other Criminal Justice Activ- 
ities—Expenditures that are 
not elsewhere classified, that 
cut across more than one cate- 
gory, or that are not allocable 
to separate categories. 

Full-Time Equivalent Employ- 
ees—The total number of 
employees discounted by 
applying average full-time 
earning rates. This is 
calculated by dividing the 
total payroll (full-time 
plus part-time) by the full- 
time payroll and multiplying 
this by the number of full- 
time employees. 

Voter Participation 

Voting Age Population— In 

1972 and 1974, the civilian 
noninstitutional population 
18 years and over. In 1966, 
1968, and 1970, includes per- 
sons 18 years old and over in 
Georgia and Kentucky, 19 years 
old and over in Alaska, 
20 years old and over in 
Hawaii, and 21 years old and 
over in the remain- 
ing States. 

Voter Registration 
and Participation 

Voter Participation-The disparity 
between official results of votes 
cast and estimates from the Cur- 
rent Population Survey is due in 
part to a tendency among respon- 
dents to over-report voting par- 
ticipation to interviewers. 

Transportation Trends 
Passenger-Miles-Total dis- 
tance traveled by all passen- 
gers. One passenger traveling 
1 mile generates 1 passenger- 
mile. 

Class I Railroad-Railroad 
with annual operating revenue 
greater than $5 million. 



Section III 

ECONOMY 

Gross National Product 

Chain Price Index— A weighted 
average of all price indexes 
for goods and services mea- 
sured in GNP. 

Change in Business Inventories 
—Often referred to as inven- 
tory investment, represents 
the value of the change in the 
physical stock of goods held 
by the business sector. 

Final Sales— The portion of 
GNP sold to ultimate users. 
It is derived by subtracting 
the change in business inven- 
tories from GNP. 

Government Purchases of Goods 
and Services— Net expenditures 
on goods and services by 
Federal, State, and local 
governments and the gross 
investment of government 
enterprise. 

Corporate Profits 

Profits From Current Produc- 
tion— Before-tax profits of 
corporations organized for 
profit adjusted to remove the 
effect of inventory profits; 
this is further adjusted 
to correct tax-return depre- 
ciation to reflect current 
replacement costs and differ- 
ences between depreciation 
formulas allowable under the 
tax laws and actual service 
life. 

Undistributed Profits-The 

portion of a corporation's 
profit remaining after taxes 
and dividends are paid. 

Indirect Business Tax and 
Nontax Accruals -Tax liabil- 
ities paid by business, other 
than employer contributions 
for social insurance and cor- 
porate income taxes. Sales 
taxes, excise taxes, and 
real property taxes paid by 
businesses are the principal 
types of indirect taxes. 

Composite Index of 
Leading Indicators 
—A combined index of 12 
indicators of specialized 
economic activities that 



96 



usually record business cycle 
peaks and troughs ahead of 
current general economic 
activity, thus providing clues 
to future shifts in the 
general direction of business 
activity. 

Composite Index of Coincident 
Indicators-A combined index 
of five indicators of special- 
ized economic activities whose 
cyclical peaks and troughs 
coincide with the level of 
general economic activity. 

Layoff Rate-A Bureau of 
Labor Statistics' monthly 
measurement of the rate of 
layoffs per 100 employees 
in manufacturing establish- 
ments. The number of lay- 
offs in reporting firms is 
divided by employment in 
these firms and multiplied 
by 100. 

Money Balance— Average bal- 
ance in real dollars of 
(1) currency and demand 
deposits outside the Treasury, 
Federal Reserve Banks and 
vaults of all commercial 
banks; (2) foreign demand 
balances at Federal Reserve 
Banks; and (3) noninstitu- 
tional deposits, consisting 
primarily of individual 
checking accounts. 

Industrial Production 
Industrial Production Index- 
Measures average changes in 
the physical volume of output 
produced by the Nation's 
factories, mines, and gener- 
ating plants. 

Major Market Groupings- 
Groupings of industries to 
reflect the end uses (or 
primary customers) to which 
the goods are put. 

Manufacturing and Trade Sales 
and Inventories 

Inventory-to-Sales Ratio- 
Indicates the number of months 
supply of goods on hand at 
the current rate of sales. 
The respective ratios are 
derived by dividing the value 
of inventories at the end of 
a given period by the value 
of sales during the same 
period. 



Advance Retail Sales- 
May 

General Merchandise Group 

With Nonstores-lncludes 
department stores, variety 
stores, general stores, and 
those selling general mer- 
chandise by mail and vending 
machine. 

Value of New Construction 

Value of New Construction Put 
in Place— Measures the esti- 
mated value of both private 
and public construction 
activity, including additions 
and alterations of existing 
structures. The estimates 
are intended to represent 
value of construction installed 
or erected during a given 
time period and covers the 
cost of labor and materials, 
as well as the cost of archi- 
tectural and engineering fees, 
charges for equipment, over- 
head, and profit on construc- 
tion operations. 

Consumer Price Index- 
Measures average changes in 
prices of goods and services 
usually bought by urban wage 
earners and clerical workers. 
It is based on prices of about 
400 items obtained in urban 
portions of 39 major statis- 
tical areas and 17 smaller 
cities, chosen to represent 
all urban areas in the 
United States. 

Wholesale Price Index— Meas- 
ures average changes in prices 
of commodities sold in large 
quantities by producers in 
primary markets in the U.S. 
The index is based on a 
sample of about 2,700 commod- 
ities selected to represent 
the movement of prices of 
ail commodities produced. 

Agricultural Prices 

Ratio of Index of Prices 
Received by Farmers to Index 
of Prices Paid— Measures 
the purchasing power of 
products sold by farmers 
compared to their purchasing 
power in the base period 
above 100; products sold 
by farmers have an average 
per-unit purchasing power 
higher than in the base 
period. Below 100, the 
average per-unit purchasing 
power of commodities sold 



by farmers is less than in 
the base period. It is a 
price comparison, not a 
measure of cost, standard 
of living, or income parity. 

Productivity and Labor Costs 

Unit Labor Costs— An index 
that measures changes in labor 
cost in the production of one 
unit of output. 

Federal Government Receipts 
and Expenditures 

Federal Government Purchases 
of Goods and Services- 
Total Federal Government 
purchases for national defense 
and for nondefense purposes. 

Federal Government Transfer 
Payments— Income flows that 
represent a change in the 
distribution of national 
wealth. The primary com- 
ponents of Federal Govern- 
ment transfer payments are 
Social Security benefits 
and veterans pensions. 

Corporate Profits Tax Accruals 

—Tax liabilities of corpor- 
ations recorded on an accrual 
basis, i.e., the tax liabil- 
ities are assigned to the 
period when the profits are 
earned, rather than the 
period when the taxes are 
actually paid to the Internal 
Revenue Service or State 
governments. 

Section IV 

OTHER TRENDS 

Sources and Uses of Energy 
British Thermal Unit (Btu) 
—The quantity of heat required 
to raise the temperature of 
1 pound of water 1 degree 
Fahrenheit at or near the 
point of maximum density 
(39.2 F). 

Energy Use in Manufacturing 

Coke and Breeze— Bituminous 
coal from which the volatile 
constituents have been driven 
off by heat. The fine screen- 
ings from crushed coke are 
called breeze. 

Kilowatt-Hour Equivalent- 
Data on fuels consumed were 
counted to kilowatt -hour 
equivalents in order to pro- 



vide figures on the basis 

of a comparable unit of energy. 

Pollution Abatement Expenditures 

Air Quality Control— Regulatory, 

administrative, operational, 
and other activities directly 
related to the abatement of 
air pollution. 

Direct Expenditure— Payments 
to employees, suppliers, con- 
tractors, beneficiaries, and 
other final recipients of 
governmental payments (i.e., 
expenditure other than inter- 
governmental) by the general 
government; excludes utility 
expenditure. 

Intergovernmental Transactions 
— Intergovernmental revenue and 
intergovernmental expenditure 
comprise, respectively, pay- 
ments from one government to 
another as grants-in-aid, 
shared revenues, payments in 
lieu of taxes, or reimburse- 
ments for governmental services. 
Solid waste management— Consists 
of those regulatory, adminis- 
trative, operational, and other 
activities directly related 
to the collection and dis- 
posal of trash, garbage, and 
other forms of solid waste, 
including street cleaning. 

Imports of Metals and 

Minerals 

Mineral and Metal Imports 

in 1975 

Net Imports— Amount of U.S. 
consumption, in percentage 
terms, that is made up of 
U.S. imports minus U.S. 
exports and plus or minus 
changes in both industry 
and government stockpiles. 

Special Feature 
HISTORICAL 
STATISTICS OF THE 
UNITED STATES 

Due to the historical nature 
of the data included, many 
series may have been subject 
to changes in concept and 
coverage. These are too 
numerous to list here, but 
they are explained in 
Historical Statistics of the 
United States, Colonial 
Times to 1 9 70, U.S. Depart- 
ment of Commerce, 
Bureau of the Census. 



technical 
committee 



Chairman of the 
Technical Committee: 

C. Louis Kincannon 

Statistical Policy Division 
Office of Management and 
Budget 



Ago Ambre 

Current Business Analysis 

Division 
Department of Commerce 

Arthur Berger 

Office of Statistics 
Department of the Interior 

Jack Blacksin 

Statistics Division 
Internal Revenue Service 

John Curtis 

Office of Energy Systems Data 
Federal Energy Administration 

Ira Dye, Director 
Office of Transportation 
Systems Analysis and 

Information 
Department of Transportation 



Mary Golladay, Editor 
Condition of Education Report 
Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare 

Richard M. Hardesty 

Program Reporting Division 
Office of Planning and 

Management 
Environmental Protection 

Agency 

Douglas Henton 

Office of the Assistant 
Secretary for Planning and 
Evaluation 

Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare 

Denis Johnston 

Statistical Policy Division 
Office of Management and 
Budget 

Frederick V. Lilly, II 

Program Reporting Division 
Environmental Protection 
Agency 

Myrtle Nelson 

Office of Data Analysis 
Bureau of Labor Statistics 
Department of Labor 

Mitsuo Ono 

National Center for Social 

Statistics 
Department of Health, 

Education, and Welfare 

Davis A. Portner 

Office of Manpower Policy and 

Planning, 
Department of Labor 



Robert W. Raynsford 

Statistical Policy Division 
Office of Management and 
Budget 

James Reisa 

Office of Environmental Health 
Council on Environmental 
Quality 

Robert E. Ryan 

Management Data and 
Evaluation Division 

Department of Housing 
and Urban Develop- 
ment 

Harry A. Scarr 

Office of Justice Policy and 
Planning 
Department of Justice 

Robert Schultz 

Reports and Statistics Service 
Veterans Administration 

Richard G. Seefer 

Division of Planning & Policy 
Analysis 
Department of Labor 

Jerry J. Shipley 

Economic Policy Division 
Office of Management and 
Budget 



Stanley J. Sigel 

Office of Managing Director 
for Research and Economic 
Policy 

Federal Reserve Board 

John Stone 

Federal Reserve Board 

Theodore Torda 

Office of the Chief Economist 
Department of Commerce 

Murray S. Weitzman 

Population Division 
Bureau of the Census 

George Wiggers 

Office of Transportation 

Systems Analysis and 

Information 
Department of Transportation 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 
Bureau of the Census 

Washington, D.C. 20233 



OFFICIAL BUSINESS 

SPECIAL FOURTH-CLASS RATE 
BOOK 



POSTAGE AND FEES PAID 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE 

COM-202